Site Prediction |
Archaeological 3D visualization for Chinese fortress sites
Prof. Dr. International Research Center for Japanese Studies
Yoshito Miyatsuka (presenter)
Manager Miyatsuka Institute of Archaeology
3-8-14, Asabu-cho, Kita-ku,Sapporo,
Archaeological visualizations are very important to understand for archaeological sites. But now, archaeologists usually use the methods for old measurement systems; therefore, they cannot easily visualize the archaeological sites. The map of archaeological sites on the papers, usually used by archaeologists, is not able to understand for other people (except archaeologists).
Chinese archaeological fortress sites are huge and flat, so we cannot to see whole images on the ground. And also we cannot get air images in China. We developed new methods for the visualizations of these archaeological fortress sites.
First one is the radio-controlled model helicopter to take air pictures (images); second one is to make the digital 3D CG and Animation from the digital Photogrammetry
The beginning of the rice cultivation in the world is said 12000 years ago in Yangtze River side in the China. Rice cultivation developed the cities (fortress sites) that surrounded clay wall and water ditches for the water-controlled systems.
From 1997, International research center for Japanese studies in Japan (Kyoto) has studied about the 5th Civilization of the world; named "Yangtze Civilization" was found around the Yangtze River area. They found some archaeological fortress sites (B.C.7000-3000) from Hu-nan and Hu-bei providences.
These fortress sites are so huge, biggest one is 3km by 4km, and difficult to make a maps of the whole plan. Then, we developed new methods for the measurement of these fortress sites.
Airborne System and Digital Mosaic
Radio-controlled Model Helicopter
We can use many platforms to take air pictures/images (Fig.-1) in Japan. But in China, we (foreigners) cannot use airplane and helicopter to take air pictures. Then we used radio-controlled model helicopter and metric/non-metric digital still camera.
Fig.-1 Origin of the Rice Cultivation (Left)
Fig-2 Platforms for Photogrammetry (Right)
We selected metric camera, HasselBlad MKW/E, and non-metric digital still camera, Cannon D30
with 15mm Lenses.
Radio-controlled model helicopter can rise up 300m with these cameras; we can get single picture size is following……….
|HasselBlad MKW/E (with f=38mm lens)
|Cannon D30 (with f=15mm lens)
- Digital Mosaic
After taking air images by Cannon D30, we must make digital mosaic at the field (with use of car battery) for the fortress sites, therefore, there are so huge (Fig.-2). Digital mosaic is very useful to check the images, and useful to measure the target points.
And also, digital mosaic will quickly give us the new unknown data that we cannot see from the air. Fig-3 shows us the double ditches and radial ditches between ditches around the fortress. These ditches are considerable for the water-controlled systems. We can check and measure the important points at the fields, for example, barrage or dam and missing streams.
Cannon D30's format size is the 22.6mm by 15.6mm C-MOS format, is too small for the photogrammtric format for the large area. Then we usually use 6 by 6 images scanned from HasselBlad camera for the photogrammtric data.