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Environmental management plan for Kanpur urban area
N. Raghu Babu
Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board,Parivesh Bhawan
East Arjun Nagar, Delhi - 110 032
Asst. Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan,
East Arjun Nagar, Delhi - 110032
With the development, the urban areas are growing into bigger agglomerations with ever increasing influx of people creating demand for support services viz. water supply, transportation, drainage/sewerage, garbage collection and disposal etc. that is far exceeding the supply of these services. While taking up developmental activities, the assimilative capacities of the environmental components i.e., air, water and land to various pollution are rarely considered. Also, lack of proper land use control is resulting in poor land use compatibility. The haphazard and uncontrolled developmental activities leading to overuse, congestion, incompatible landuse and creating high risk environment to the city residents in the form of deterioration of the natural and socio-economic living conditions which specifically includes overcrowding, congestion, lack of sufficient water supply, unhygienic living conditions, air and noise pollution etc.
However, in large urban agglomerations, the problems cannot merely be solved by pollution control measures such as control of pollution at source, providing sewage treatment facilities etc. The environmental aspects are not usually considered while preparing master plans or budget plans to produce well co-ordinated and balanced developmental plans right at the planning stage itself. The best use of the land needs to be assessed in terms of not only the economic aspects but also the environmental aspects.
The spatial planning tools can help in sustainable development. There is a need to study the necessity of structural changes in the cities and to introduce planning approaches that can help in achieving environmentally compatible. The pilot study for Kanpur has been taken up to look at the possibilities of using planning tools for environmental improvement. The GIS technology proved to be right tool to map and analyse the spatial information.
The overall objective of the study has been to incorporate environmental considerations into urban planning and prepare an Environmental Management Plan for improving the environmental quality. The specific objectives of the study are:
Representation of information through easy-to-read maps helps in quick and realistic decision making process. The scale of 1:25,000 (4 cm = 1 km) was adopted. For the environmental mapping, the factors and the parameters were identified and theme maps were prepared. The reference maps helped to understand the spatial implications. Field surveys, environmental monitoring, application of GIS tools and air & water quality modelling are required for preparing various maps. The study includes the following maps:
Landuse Maps showing residential, industrial, agriculture areas, water bodies, rivers, village settlements, commercial areas, religious places, slums etc.
Existing Industrial Location Map shows location of different industries and industrial clusters.
Environmental Resources Map showing plantations, forests, monuments, water bodies, sand dunes, play grounds, open lands and agriculture land.
Housing Quality Map shows residential areas classified as very good, good, average, poor and very poor categories.
Water Supply Map showing tube wells, pumping stations, areas with or without piped network.
Drainage and Sewerage Network Map shows drains/nallas, sewer lines, pumping stations, disposal points and location of sewage treatment plants.
Surface Water Quality Map showing the rivers and water bodies, and areas with no sewerage network, areas covered under sewerage network, areas with non-functional system etc.
Ground Water Quality Map shows contaminated areas, areas with trace of pesticides and good g.w. quality areas.
Air Quality Map showing the zones classified as highly polluted, polluted, medium air quality, good quality and very good quality.
Solid Waste Collection/Disposal Map showing solid waste collection points, areas with no specific problems, areas with poor collection efficiency, areas with occasional collection/disposal problems, areas with regular problems and the dump sites.
Environmental Hotspots Map showing poor air quality area, ground water contaminated areas, unsewered areas, water logged areas, slums, polluted river stretches, areas with problems due to solid waste disposal, polluted drains etc.
Environmental Management Plan showing major traffic corridors, road network, diversion of railway lines, green belts, open spaces, areas needing preservations such as forests , religious places, slums areas needing rehabilitation an, industrial areas etc.
Kanpur : A General Overview
Kanpur, a industrial city of India and previously known as - Kanhaiapur or Cownpore, located about 425 km east of Delhi on right bank of holy river Ganga and developed linearly along this river. The expansion of the city was restricted in Southern direction by the river Pandu. The city acquired important status when British Army Camp was established in 1778 and subsequent development as industrial town by East India Company which gained leverage of connecting railway line in 1859 and G.T. road. The city witnessed significant population growth from 1.275 mln. in 1971 to 2.037 mln. in 1991 with average annual growth rate of 2.6 percent.
The study areas falls within the jurisdiction of Kanpur Development Authority (KDA), subdivided into rural and urban areas. The rural areas covers Kalyanpur (with some urban area), Bignu and Sarsaul and the urban area covers Kanpur Municipal Corporation, Cantonment, Armapur Industrial Estate, Railway Colony, Chakeri, IIT etc. The total area under KDA is 829 sq.km out of the total Kanpur Nagar District area of 1040 sq.km.
Major City Functions
The city of Kanpur plays multiple function such as; Industrial growth centre with important industrial establishments of Urea Fertiliser Plant, Thermal Power Plant, LML scooters, Indian Oil Corporation and National textile Corporation mills, trade and commerce centre as major distribution centre for finished leather products, textile, fertiliser and for the products not manufactured in the city; as transit point; educational centre with educational institutes of national reputation (IIT, GSVM colleges), National Sugar Institute, CLRI, National Textile Institute, ICAR, Kanpur University etc.
The linear development of Kanpur city along the right banks of river Ganga in east-west direction is restricted towards south with river Pandu. The landuse pattern of the of the city is marked with a heavily built CBD area near railway station hosting the wholesale market and cantonment area in the eastern side. The development of public, semi-public, residential and other mixed land-uses have come-up in the western direction and mixed with the industrial growth in that direction.
Industrial Profile of Kanpur
Kanpur, once a industrial growth center of the development in the region faced the problems of uncontrolled growth coupled with decline in industrial production resulting the adverse impact on this urban set-up. The cause of decay could be attributed to closure of many large industrial units and deterioration in infrastructure facilities.
The industrialisation era of Indian economy marked the city landscape with about 75 large & medium scale industries which followed western direction of expansion along the railway line and G.T. road. These industries include government owned units viz. Elgin Mills, Muir Mill, Cawnpore woollen Mills, Ordinance factories, New Victoria Mill, M.P. Udyog, HVOC, and Lalimli which are facing threat of closure vowing to problems like old technology, gigantic workforce, high input cost and low output. Inspite of this grim scenario Kanpur is still a major industrial centre with few operating textile mills, defence establishments, power plants, fertiliser unit, automobile industry, vanaspathi oil mill and tanneries.
Apart from the largescale units city also has about 5457 mixed type of SSIs which grew as ancillary to major units with the predominance of metal products (830), Leather products (819), Food Products (443), Rubber & plastics (416), Machinery parts (396), Hosiery & garments (387), Chemical (337), paper products (318) and Cotton textile (246). The most of the industries are in Govt. industrial estate (Kalpi Road & Fazalganj), Industrial Estate, Co-operative Industrial estate (Dada Nagar), Panki Industrial Area and Jajmau Industrial area. The tanneries in 65 number in clustered form (surrounded slums, village settlement) located in Jajmau area on the bank of river Ganges, with degraded environmental conditions until the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) came into effect for the rescue.
The engineering industries of armaments, automobiles and steel fabrication units are in Kalpi road industrial belt. The small scale steel workshops found to be not highly polluting except noise impact to residential areas in vicinity. The large scale engineering units discharge toxic metal from electroplating and painting processes. The Thermal Power Plant of 264 MW capacity is the single largest source of emission in the city but not effecting the city due to tall chimney. But the plant has two small boilers which create substantial fly-ash due to use of old chimneys and large amount of fly ash is being discharged into river Pandu.
The housing quality of Kanpur, which by and large depends on civic services (water supply, sewerage collection), power supply, roads, greenery, commuting facilities, community shopping centres etc., is difficult to characterised and range between good to bad in different areas. The city core area is densely populated, very old blocks in dilapidated condition, old sewerage system, broken-down water supply lines, improper garbage collection and insufficient open spaces. As per the compiled sources, the deficit in housing stocks of Kanpur is 50,000 against the total households of 390,817 and is increasing at the rate of 6% per annum.
There are 296 identified slums with 5 lakhs population which includes colonies of industrial workers, common slums, population squatting on public land. The workers colonies, 90 in number, commonly known as Ahatas are in state of dilapidation due to lack of any development work from the industries which either already closed or under closure. The slums, commonly known as Abadis are with lack of civic services resulting unhygienic living conditions.
The environmental assessment for Kanpur was carried out through extensive monitoring and survey for spot checks includes the parameters of ambient air quality, vehicular pollution, surface water , ground water, water supply, drainage, sewage and solid waste.
The city has installed capacity of water supply of 300 mld (for 17 lakhs population) with average daily rate of supply of 176 lpcd. The network laid way back in 1892 and designed to cater 2 lakhs population souring the water from Ganga river at Bhairounghat. Out of total water supply 63 % is being met from surface water
Map - Landuse of Kanpur
Drinking Water Quality
The monitoring of drinking water quality at various pumping stations and at end-user points in different localities reveals the satisfactory quality of water at supply end, while underground leakage and intrusion in causing low pressure and contaminated supply at receiving end in some of the zones.
The main problem in drinking water supply at Kanpur is not due to bad raw water or deficiency in treatment but the contamination in transit, these include colour problem, coliforms at receiving end, high Chloride, Sulphate and TDS due to contamination, open pumping station, storage tanks causing contamination.
Surface Water System
The existing surface water bodies in the city limits are classified as rivers, open drains with direct out fall into the rivers, ponds/ stagnant water bodies within city, waterlogged areas and the areas affected due to poor management of domestic sewage.
While the changes in the DO and BOD value in river Ganga were not observed above the limits because of large quantity of water in the river, the DO at d/s found lower than u/s and BOD at d/s found higher than u/s and increase in coliform count from 300 u/s to 1700 mpn noticed in the river Pandu due to small quantity of water available and waste water discharge. The total load discharge of BOD load is of 59163.4 kg/d and SS load of 281863 kg/d. Ganga has drifted away from the city in last 20 years and a channel has been dredged to divert the river water for drinking water intake well at Bhairounghat.
The Ghats of Kanpur which previously were famous for holy dips and prayers are now deserted as public has stopped bathing in the river due to excessive pollution. The other surface water bodies includes open drains (outfall into the rivers), ponds/ stagnant water bodies within city, water lake in Allen forest, water storage tank at Motijheel and other waterlogged areas. The scattered water logged sites in defence areas were found with growth of water hyacinth.
The water logged areas could be seen in the intermediate eastern areas of the city near COD along G.T. road, while small pockets of water logged areas were also found in the defence areas.
Drainage and Sewerage
The physiography of the city divides it into two parts sloping towards Ganga and Pandu rivers respectively. The city sewerage network laid in the year 1904 is being administered under five different zones. The total wastewater generated is 390 mld.
The major zone of sewerage system 'city drainage district' with its underground sewerage system covers 10 lakhs population and generates 260 mld w.w. with its out-fall at Jajmau into river Ganges. The system has carrying capacity of 160 mld and other 100 mld of sewage meeting river Ganga without any treatment. In the 'south drainage district' only some pockets are sewered and rest is collected in open nallahs. The Industrial effluent from Panki area meets the river separately through industrial drain. A new sewage treatment plant has been proposed under Ganga Action Plan phase-II. The 'west drainage district' has no sewerage facilities and the wastewater leads through open nallah to Pandu river. The 'east drainage district' which is primarily the developing areas has also no sewerage network. The collection/ treatment of wastewater has been proposed to discharged into Pandu. The peripherial areas which are new developments are with the absence of sewerage network.
The city has total installed treatment capacity of 171 mld for domestic/industrial wastewater. The STP with UASB technology and bio-gas recovery with 65 to 80 percent efficiency has been commissioned in 1987 has the capacity to treat 5 mld and located at Jajmau under the Indo-Dutch project. The city also has Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) commisioned in 1994 with its capacity of 36 mld (for 9 mld of tannery effluent in conjunction with 27 mld domestic sewage). The conventional sewage treatment plant comissioned in 1996-97 under Ganga Action Plan has the capacity of 130 mld.
In addition to above, a new 130 mld conventional sewage treatment plant was also commissioned in the year 1996-97 under the Ganga Action Plan at the same premises. This gives a total installed treatment capacity for 171 mld of domestic/industrial wastewater reaching from out-fall sewer and intermediate pumping stations at Jajmau.
Surface Water Quality
The lack of adequate sewerage system has adversely affected the city's sanitary conditions. Accumulation of stagnant sewerage or industrial effluent can be seen along the roads in the open plots and along the railway tracks and in many localities in the city. An attempt was made to outline the status of wastewater related problems owing to existing sewerage network. The study area has been divided into the zones
Particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, lead and ammonia gas are the major air pollutants generated in Kanpur city. The sources of pollutants in the city can be classified into domestic & commercial sources, vehicular traffic, industrial sources and natural sources
Coal is predominantly being used in slums, restaurants etc which is the major source of pollution in terms of carbon monoxide, SO2 and particulate matter.
For the purpose of the mapping the air quality of the Kanpur, the city had been divided into grids of 1 sq. km and the quantity of fuel being burnt in each of these grid was estimated using existing population densities and their broad socio-economic conditions. Suitable emission factors are used to estimate the domestic emissions.
Vehicular Pollution Load
The vehicular emissions are one of the major sources of air pollution affecting the urban population in Kanpur. Unlike industrial emissions, vehicular pollutants are released at ground level due to poor dispersion at ground level and hence the impact on recipient population will be more. The total pollution load from these vehicles is calculated by dividing the entire city into grids of 1 sq. Km each.
Kanpur city has about 0.25 million registered vehicles which were found to be major contributors for air pollution and the population exposed to air pollution (target) are pedestrians, drivers, traffic police personnel, travellers, shop keepers and road-side vendors. The vehicles in Kanpur are producing total vehicular pollution load of 3550 Kg/hour. The break-up of the load is SO2 33.7 kg/hr, Particulate Matter 42.2 kg/hr., NOx 408 kg/hr., CO 2307 kg/hr and HC 757 kg/hr.
The industrial air pollution was estimated taking into consideration, quantity of fossil fuel burnt in boilers and process fugitive emissions. The data on the location of industrial clusters, quantity of fuel used, height of release of stack emissions, pollution control measures etc. From the industries particulate matter being identified as the significant air-pollutant. Other than the domestic, commercial and industrial sources.
The air borne dust due to lack of vegetative cover, loose alluvium nature of top surface soils. The situation becomes severe during summers due to dust storms. The concentration of SO2 and NOx were found to be well within limits, while SPM was noticed to be exceeding the prescribed norms at all locations.
Kanpur generates 1500 tonnes/d of solid waste from domestic and commercial sources, apart from 250 to 350 tonnes/d of industrial waste. The responsibility of solid waste management is entrusted to Kanpur Nagar Mahapalika (Municipal Corporation).
For the purpose of solid waste management city was divided into six zones covering 50 wards. The collection of solid waste is being done in two phase. The frequency of collection depends on type of locality as in thickly populated commercial areas and posh areas i.e. civil lines it is least once in a day, while in other areas it is only once in 3-7 days. The secondary collection - disposing the waste from PCC to disposal sites is being carried out through automatically unloadable containers to collector trucks and transported directly to disposal site. Other than these about 22 new colonies s.w. collection and disposal responsibilities were entrusted to private agencies, but these arrangement could not be found very successful in Kanpur.
The city has s.w. collection of 300 tonnes/day which is of recyclable in nature i.e. paper, card-board, plastic, scrap metal and glasses pieces. The areas with regular problems were identified in old CBD area, slums and industrial areas where generation is exceeding collection (comm./residential) leading to scattered dumps and along the road sides/open lands. The areas with poor collection efficiency were identified in newly developed colonies (with irregular collection of garbage and open burning leading to air pollution). The posh areas and organised residential colonies were found with occasional collection and disposal problems. The areas with little or no problems were those owned by other Agencies i.e. Cantonment, HAL colony, Armapur and IIT etc.
The localities fall in old CBD area, slums and industrial areas, were found with scattered dumps inspite of having a number of PCCs due to the reason that the generation exceeds the collection from commercial cum residential areas have been categorised as areas with regular problems. In industrial areas, the dumps can be seen along the road sides and open lands. Comparatively, the collection from Jajmau industrial area is better organised than other industrial areas.
The newly developed colonies viz. Vikas Nagar, Barra, Awas Vikas, areas in trans bypass road, Hajinder Nagar etc. fall in the category of areas with poor collection efficiency because Irregular lifting of garbage in these areas. These are relatively better organised residential colonies such as Pandu Nagar, portion of Kidwai Nagar, railway colonies, Tilak Nagar, Civil lines etc. The areas owned by agencies other than KNN, viz. Cantonment, HAL Colony, Armapur and IIT falls under the category of areas with little or no problems. A few posh civilian areas in Tilak Nagar, Swaroop Nagar, Anand Nagar and Model Town colonies fall under this category.
Other than the domestic solid waste the city also generates Hazardous waste of 64000 tonnes/annum which includes metal bearing waste, tanneries waste, dye industry waste, chemical industries. The coal ash of 71,000 tonnes/annum also generates in the city.
Environmental Hot Spots
City Structure Or City Development Concept
Map - Pollution Hot Spots
Drinking Water Quality
The recommendations are mainly oriented towards environmentally related factors. The recommendations of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) deal in two parts, one is the structural plan related and the other is various practices/options for reducing the environmental problems.
City Structure and City Development Concept
The air pollution problems in Kanpur are due to traffic & transportation, burning of solid waste, use of hard coal and cow-dung for cooking purposes, lack of green belts/buffer zones, incompatibility of land uses etc.
Traffic & Transport
Improved Road Network - To ease the traffic congestion and related environmental problems, a network of road corridors are proposed as shown in Map-12. The proposed road corridors are existing or new roads with improved width, pedestrian facilities, parking facilities, traffic signs etc.
Through Traffic - There is immediate need to provide grade separators for level crossings at Kalyanpur, IOCl bottling plant, Custom Colony, HAL Colony so that the existing by pass road becomes operational. The possibilities of an alternate by-pass keeping in the future growth of the city needs to be explored.
Intra-city Traffic Management
The existing meter-gauge railway line passing through the city has 17 level crossings which are main identified reason for the air pollution resulting from the traffic congestion at the time of passing of the rails.
Option - 1: Connecting the roads leading the level crossing by a road parallel to Grand Trunk road and provide flyovers at selected points.
The underground or multi-storied parking facilities are the alternative solutions for parking problems in Navin market and Meston Road shopping malls. Buses and tempos should stop and park only at the
Map - Environmental Management Plan
Industrial Emission Control
The industrial development is fast taking place in south-eastern direction (Noriah Khera etc.). The type of industries and number of industries which the city can accommodate are to be decided based on the present level of pollution, the carrying capacity of the area and landuses around these areas.
The new industrial areas should be earmarked only after careful environmental assessment, ensuring compatibility of the designated areas with the surround land uses. The industries that may not be permitted and the guidelines for siting of industries are given in Section 6.1.
Green Areas Development
There is a need to provide new green belts to control air quality and to provide breathing spaces. The proposed development of green belts or recreation centres are in the following areas such as; the vacant unused portion of railway yard, along the lower Ganges canal & abandoned canal, etc.
A 500 metre green belt proposed towards the eastern and western side of the city to divide or buffer the city from future development in these directions.
The spaces occupied by the closed industries in the core city should be preserved and converted into cultural centres/museum without disturbing greenery in it. These areas are precious piece of land in the congested core city area.
The open space resulting from shifting of meter gauge line can be converted into green belt, if not used for mass transport system, with provision of parking spaces in between.
Liquid Waste Management
The treated water at supply end in general is fit for drinking but the end users are still receive contaminated water. The existing piped network has to be renovated in phased manner, better house keeping at storage reservoirs of Zonal pumping stations, upgadation of disinfecting facilities.
River Water Quality Management
Quality of both rivers, Ganges and Pandu are adversely effected due to indiscriminate discharge of wastewater from the city. All the drains including the Seesamau drain should be tapped and diverted from river Ganges. Area upto 5-8 km in u/s watershed should protected from waster water disposal.
Direct discharge into Pandu river should also be stopped and an alternative provision should be made to use the waste water for sewage farming.
The quality of existing water pool at Rail-yard along the G.T. Road has to be restored. This can be converted into one of the recreation centres.
Dredging and renovation of Motijheel ponds are to be taken up, if not as a service water reservoir, as a recreation centre, which is one of the critical needs of the city.
Drainage and Sewerage Network The sewerage system can be characterised as inadequate and non-functional, open drains and stagnated pools of sewage. The regular maintenance and renovation of existing sewerage system has to be ensured and phase-wise expansion of sewerage network has to be initiated in the newly developed areas.
The areas prone to regular breakdowns of sewerage system (Faithfulganj, Cooperganj, Transport Nagar, Baradevi, Juhi, Kakadev and Vijay Nagar) may be taken up on priority for renovation and up-gradation works.
The GAP Phase - II work have to be expedited for diversion of untreated wastewater, upgrading the existing pumping facilities and tapping of discharges.
The existing 36 mld common effluent treatment plant at Jajmau is not able to receive total wastewater from tanneries. This is mainly due to idling of lifting pumps due to power failure. Hence, it is recommended to install DG sets in all of the intermediate pumping stations in Jajmau area.
The existing 133 mld sewage treatment plant need stabilisation. Optimal treatment efficiency is yet to be achieved. The U.P. Pollution Control Board should be vigilant and regular sampling has to be carried out.
The economic value of sewage should be potentially utilised. Decentralised treatment of sewage using techniques such as Root Zone Treatment should be adopted in selected residential colonies and the treated sewage used for developing greenery.
Solid Waste Management
Solid waste dumping along GT-Road between Vikas Nagar to Kalyanpur should be stopped immediately. Reclamation of exhausted dump site should be taken-up at COD dump-site should be taken-up. The new dump-sites should be chosen after a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment Study on the selected sites. No new site should come up in KNN boundary.
The possibilities of developing decentralised facilities for converting garbage into manure in selected residential colonies and subsequently using the manure for developing greenery should be explored.
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