Hydrchemical evaluation of groundwater in Khartoum state, Sudan
College of water resources & Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.
Longcang Shu, Omer Kheir
Geological research Authority, Khartoum, Sudan.
El Neelain University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
Variations in natural and human activities reflect spatial variations in the hydrochemical parameters of the groundwater. The difference of dissolved ions concentration in groundwater are generally, governed by lithology, velocity and quantity of groundwater flow, nature of geochemical reactions, solubility of salts and human activities [1, 2]. Khartoum state is located in the arid region of Central Sudan and intensively inhabited during the last decenniums, leading to expansion of the residential areas from the surface watercourses. Suitable quantity and quality of groundwater become a more crucial alternative resource to meet the drastic increase in social, agricultural, and industrial development and to avoid the expected deterioration of groundwater quality due to heavy abstraction for miscellaneous uses. Hence, hydrochemical investigations are the main objectives for the groundwater system in Khartoum state. In this paper, results of preliminary investigation are conducted in form of table, hydrochemical maps and graphs to evaluate the vertical and horizontal variation in groundwater chemistry, which was more related to salinity hazards.
2. Study area
The study area sited between latitudes 15° 00'-16° 00' N and longitudes 32° 15'-33° 30'E covers an area of 7200 Km2 (Figure 1). It is semi-arid area characterized by hot dry summer (April-June) and cold dry winter (November-February). The annual rainfall is 157mm, mainly during July to September. Most of the area is flat plain, where the surface elevation ranges between 380 to 400 m a.s.l. Elevated ridges and isolated inselbergs are encountered in the northeast, northwest and southwest of the area. The main watercourses are, Blue Nile, White Nile, River Nile and seasonal streams.