The land record information management is very difficult with the FMBs and the pattern of alphanumeric data such as the Jamabandi, Khasra Girdawari and Pedigree Sheet. The upcoming technologies such as GIS, Data warehousing and Web are very much helpful for the generation, updation as well as management of the land record information. The use of these technologies will make LRIMS easier and faster.
Land, which is a scarce natural resource has been regarded as a measure of wealth, status and power, from time immemorial. Any developmental activity is nearly impossible to conceive without taking land into consideration. Now, it is being widely regarded that the efficiency in land management is one of the indices of a nation's developmental status. Hence, it can be said that the land plays the role of the most crucial role for societies progress anywhere in the world.
It can also be said that the rights of the citizens to own private holdings and enjoy the wealth generated from the same, constitute a very important facet of public administration. This is particularly true for India, which is a predominantly an agricultural economy. As India is rapidly transforming into an industrialised economy and, consequently, suffers from maladies like urban overcrowding, unlimited exploitation of precious natural resources like land are being put to enormous strain, screaming for proper management. Land Administration in India, therefore, shall have to evolve procedures and methodologies consistent with the social dynamics of the day.
Land records in India, are said to have originated during the Mughal period, but were put on scientific foundation by the British. During this period that large-scale cadastral surveys were conducted to determine the boundaries and extent of each individual landholding and to settle the crop-sustaining ability (or fertility) of different soils. This had been done to rationalize the levy and collection of land revenue from the landholders each an every village.
Present Day Scenario
In most of the states of India, the land records data are maintained at Taluk offices. These are of two types and are maintained in various registers.
i) Field Measurement Book (FMB)
- The map data is stored in volumes for each village. These are known as the Field Measurement Books (FMB).
- Various alphanumeric data like Jamabandi, Khasra Girdawari, Pedigree sheets etc. pertaining to each individual land holding is primarily classified into land details and the ownership details and is maintained in various registers.
In FMB's the individual survey number maps are maintained at a scale of 1:1000 or 1:2000. Each survey number is divided into several sub divisions. Each sub division is owned by a owner. The FMB's also depicts the dimensions of each field boundaries and the sub divisions.
Various components of Field Management Book are discussed below:
This is an imaginary line (Guess Line) which converts the map into various sizes of triangles in order to accurately fix the boundary lines and the various points in the map. This line is the foundation on which the entire map is built. Any error in a G-line will affect all calculations based on that G-line.
It is the outer boundary line in a sketch, which signifies the actual field boundaries of the outer lines of the sketch. The F-line points are fixed with reference to its offset distance from the G-line.
These lines demarcate a small parcel of land within a survey number. A subdivisional polygon's extent is directly correlated to the extent found for the particular sub division. The sub division lines are generally defined through a ladder etc., except for the graphical representation in the FMB.
As mentioned earlier, the field line points are defined with reference to an offset distance from the G-line. The offset distance may be to the left or right side of the G-line. This left or right angle deviation (offset) is depicted by Ladder. By converting the ladder details into electronic data, once can produce the outline of the FMB sketch. The ladder details get attracted whenever there is a change in the field line, involving a bent.
Each survey number field is an integral part of the village map and hence other fields surround each sketch. The exact direction in which the subject field joins the neighbouring field is shown on the FMB as an extension line.
Neighbouring field survey numbers
As mentioned earlier, each survey sketch is surrounded by other fields. These surrounding field numbers are marked around each FMB. This enables mosaicing of FMBs into D-sketches and village maps and so on.
ii) Alphanumeric Data
Different kinds of data maintained in various registers are:
It is the record of rights. It indicates the ownership of each parcel. Form of mutation holds the records through which the changes are affected in Jamabandi.
It is the crop inspection register, giving details of the cultivator, crop, and area under such crop.
This sheet gives the details of the cultivating and landowner families of the village and their relationship.