Cadastral reform in Malaysia: A vision to the 2000s
Wan Aziz., Majid. K, Sahrum, S.
Department of Geomatic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering & Geoinformation Science
University Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai. Johor.Malaysia
Directorate of Surveying & Mapping,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cadastral surveying aims at defining and guaranteeing legal property boundaries, and determining coordinates of all measured points to give information on the size and nature of land use. The role of a land registration system like the cadastre is specifically regulated by laws and other administrative rules and guidelines for a uniform implementation of the system. It will not be possible to design a cadastral system suitable for any case and any circumstances, especially the socio-economic basic conditions are different from country to country. The different forms of land tenure and the legal situation in this field will give the framework for a cadastral systems and how to carry out its technical features. On the other hand, the political circumstances are dictating the financial and personnel investment in the cadastral system The cadastral system in Malaysia is a system that provide more secure basis for land and property ownership. It consists of the surveying and recording mechanism in describing the cadastral information, for example boundary line (in the forms of bearing and distance), location and area of a given parcel of land (lot). The demarcation and delineation of the boundaries are also part of a cadastral survey aimed at defining the parcels on the ground and securing evidence for the re-establishment of the boundary if the marks disappeared.
The typical surveying technique adopted for the cadastral survey which capable of bearing (direction) and distance measurements is the survey equipment called total station (digital theodolite & electronic distance measuring unit). However, the main drawback of this conventional technique is that it requires intervisibility between control points, and this has restricted the productivity of the surveyed lots. Several drawbacks as well as the great demand for efficient and effective cadastral management have prompted various surveying and mapping authorities in the world (including Department of Surveying & Mapping, Malaysia - DSMM) to study the concept of 'Coordinated-based Cadastral System - CCS', see Boey and Hill, (1995), Barnes, et.al. (1996), McDaid, et.al., (1997) and Wong, K.S., (1999). The CCS means that 'bearing and distance' are derived legally from the final adjusted coordinates. Realising the needs of integrating the cadastral data with other map based information (all forms of spatial information)for GIS applications, the CCS has to be prevailed in the near future. The emphasis of the CCS concept is the geocentric datum, a single projection system for the whole country and the application of least squares adjustment procedure in the distribution of survey errors. At present, DSMM have already implemented the cadastral system in digital environment: Computer Assisted Land Survey System (CALS), Cadastral Database Management System (CDMS), the Computerized Land Registration System (CLRS) and National Infrastructure for Land Information System (NaLIS). Therefore, by implementing the CCS, it will opening up and integrate the benefits from advances of technologies into reality.
Several performance tests have been shown that the GPS technology efficiently provides users precise positions. Nowadays, by using modern GPS techniques such as Rapid-Static, Stop & Go and Real Time Kinematics (RTK), many points can be observed in a relatively short period of time with good accuracy as those obtainable by conventional EDM/Total Station surveying. These can increase productivity, reduce cost and manpower, and at the same time is capable to challenge the cadastre task. Furthermore, for multipurpose cadastre surveys, GPS positioning is a desirable and adequate method for establishing and strengthening the national and regional geodetic networks. Therefore, a move to introduce multipurpose coordinate-based cadastre using GPS technology has been under way in Malaysia, in recent years. One of the main advantage in CCS is that it facilitates the use of rapid spatial data acquisition, storage, processing procedure and management techniques, even though several issues unique to the GPS technology need also be addressed. This paper is concerned with the feasibility for implementing a nationwide Coordinated Cadastral Surveying (CCS) in Malaysia. Here, the performance of the GPS technology under the controlled conditions of the cadastral system is tested.