Village Information System (VIS) for Development Planning: Geospatial Sciences Based Study of Chharora Village in Mewat Region of District Gurgaon (Haryana) India

Dr. Subhan Khan##, Dr. Shakti Prakash@ & Mr. Swaran Jaggi$
#Scientist-F, National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS), CSIR;
@ Project Assistant, NISTADS, CSIR, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, Pusa Gate, New Delhi - 110 012
$Vice President , AlKor Technologies Ltd., Hyderabad
Phones: (+91-11) 2584 1758 (O), Mobile: 9811024504, & Fax: (+91-11) 2584 2382
E-mail: subhankhan1@yahoo.com, shaktitiwari@yahoo.com, sjaggi@gisroom.com



Abstract
It is common knowledge that, without updated and accurate information about all kind of resources at a village level and what is happening to them and to the environment, the government and the people of the nation are handicapped in planning and controlling their own destiny. Further, it is impossible, even to the best of governments, to make full use of its natural and social wealth or to prevent its misuse, without factual knowledge about these. Hence, the decision makers including planners, policy makers and administrators need to have at their disposal comprehensive Village Information System (VIS) to handle such spatially correlated data. The VIS is a digital system having spatial (graphical) and aspatial data for each land holding and household mainly based on ‘Land Records Computerization’ or ‘Cadastral System’ providing knowledge about the lands comprised in the village. Since the data is maintained in a digital form, it is easy to edit, maintain, rectify and keep the records up-to-date with least efforts. It can possibly give a reprieve to the villagers and agencies which require information for developmental planning, implementation and monitoring. Application of geospatial sciences, particularly Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Remote Sensing (RS) is attempted in the present exercise to develop VIS.

The study area chosen for the exercise is a village namely Chharora situated in tehsil and Development Block Tauru of district Gurgaon (Haryana), which is the headquarter of Mewat Development Society (MDS), a prominent NGO, jointly undertaking a Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India’s sponsored project with the ‘National Institute of Science Technology and Development Studies’, (NISTADS), CSIR, New Delhi on applications of spatial technologies in Village/Panchayat Development. The abadi or village settlement of this village shifted from its original site which was on the Aravali hill top and remains of the same can still be observed visually as well as when doing any excavation there. The villagers are unable to give any accurate account of the shifting from the old site or of the origin of the present one, and government records are also silent on the matter.

Presently it is in pentagon form and is approximately located between latitude 28° 9' 24'' and 28°10' 54'' North and longitude 76° 66' 34'' and 76° 68' 23'' East. Boundaries of village Chharora are surrounded by boundaries of eight villages i.e. (i) Rehna and (ii) Tapkan in the east; villages (iii) Chilawali and (iv) Thana Alam alias Masit in the west; villages (v) Silkhoh and (vi) Noorpur in the south and villages (vii) Bhajlaka and (viii) Chilla in the north. Presently it is situated in the foothills of Mewat Aravalis (locally known as Kala Pahad–a Black Mountain), in the upper side of this mountain popularly known as Pahad Uper and the other side is known as Pahad Nichee. It is about 70 kilometers from Delhi. As per this village revenue records applicable for the year 2004-2005, its total area is 8,692 Kanal 1 Marla including all types of land. Out of this, 4,822 Kanal 6 Marla is cultivable land while 3,869 Kanal 15 Marla is non-cultivable land. Out of cultivable land 3,776 Kanal 8 Marla is irrigated; 1,029 Kanal 10 Marla is Magda and 16 Kanal 8 Marla is Bhood, while out of uncultivable land 3,130 Kanal 7 Marla is Pahad (hill) ; 15 Kanal 4 Marla is Banjer Kadeem (old waste land) while 724 Kanal 4 Marla is Gair Mumkin (occupied by Abadi/Nala /tubewell etc.). Ownership-wise the distribution of land is as follows: 4,531 Kanal 7 Marla is of Malikaan (belongs to individual/joint owners) while rest i.e. 4,160 Kanal 14 Marla belongs to different categories such as: 132 Kanal 14 Marla is of provincial government (occupied by road etc.), 58 Kanal 5 Marla is of Abadi Deh; 67 Kanal is of Punjab Wakf Board (reserved for Muslim Qabristan – graveyard); 3,707 Kanal 9 Marla is of Panchayat Land, 99 Kanal 2 Marla is Samlat Deh (common land); 16 Marla is of Araji Matruka (custodian) and 95 Kanal 8 Marla is of Samlat-Patti-Bhonta. The location of the village can be traced in Survey of India (SOI) topo sheet no. 53D/16 on 1:50, 000 scales and on 53D/16/NE on 1:25,000 scales. The village shape having a bird notch towards its north west (Map1).

The Chharora Shajra (village cadastral map) was studied in two parts using spatial technologies including GPS mapping, spot survey, remote sensing data inputs and data collection questionnaire/schedule. First the Lal Dora, the settlement part constituting the houses and other structures and secondly the non-settlement area constituting agricultural land, hills, nalas, wastelands etc. In this way attribute data pertaining to each and every household as well as to each and every piece of land is being collected and attached to the village cadastral map indicating the location dimension. The infrastructure amenities and facilities were also plotted with the help of spatial technologies. The updation of information was also undertaken with the help of these technologies. Hence, a Village Information System (VIS) is being developed for Development Planning using Geospatial Sciences and demonstrated with the data of Chharora Village in Mewat Region of District Gurgaon (Haryana) India.

1. Introduction
It is common knowledge that, without updated and accurate information about all kind of resources at a village level, now a days the basic unit for development of rural areas in the new hierarchy of administrative setup, and what is happening to them and to the environment, the government and the people of the nation are handicapped in planning and controlling their own destiny. Further, it is impossible, even to the best of governments, to make full use of its natural and social wealth or to prevent its misuse, without factual knowledge about these. Hence, the decision makers including planners, policy makers and administrators need to have at their disposal comprehensive Village Information System (VIS) to handle such spatially correlated data. The VIS is a digital system having spatial (graphical) and aspatial data for each land holding and every household mainly based on 'Land Records Computerization' or 'Cadastral System' providing knowledge about old type of lands comprised in the village. Since the data is maintained in a digital form, it is easy to edit, maintain, rectify and keep the records up-to-date with least efforts. It can possibly give a reprieve to the villagers and agencies which require information for developmental planning, implementation and monitoring. Application of geospatial sciences, particularly Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Remote Sensing (RS) is attempted in the present exercise to develop a VIS.

2. Study Area:

2.1 Regional Setting & Location:
The study area chosen for the exercise is a village namely Chharora situated in tehsil and development block, Tauru of district Gurgaon (Haryana), which is also the headquarter of Mewat Development Society (MDS), a prominent NGO, jointly undertaking a sponsored project of the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India with the National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS), CSIR, New Delhi on applications of spatial technologies in Village/Panchayat Development. Regional setting and location of the study area is depicted in Map1. The abadi or village settlement of this village shifted from its original site which was on the Aravali hill top once upon a time and remains of the same can still be observed visually as well as when doing any excavation there. However, the villagers are unable to give any accurate account of the shifting from the old site or of the origin of the present one. The government records are also silent on the matter.

Presently, the village Chharora is in the foothills of Mewat Aravalis (locally known as Kala Pahad-a Black Mountain). The village is in the upper side of this mountain popularly known as Pahad Upper. The other side of this mountain is known as Pahad Nichee. It is about 75 kilometers from Delhi. The location of the village can be traced in Survey of India (SOI) topo sheet no. 53D/16 on 1:50, 000 scales and on 53D/16/NE on 1:25,000 scales. The village now has pentagon form, having a bird notch towards its north west and is approximately located between latitude 28° 9' 24'' and 28°10' 54'' North and longitude 76° 66' 34'' and 76° 68' 23'' East. Boundaries of the village Chharora are surrounded by boundaries of eight villages i.e. (i) Rehna and (ii) Tapkan in the east; villages (iii) Chilawali and (iv) Thaana-Alam alias Massit in the west; villages (v) Silkhoh and (vi) Noor Pur in the south and villages (vii) Bhajlaka and (viii) Chilla in the north as depicted in Map 2.

*'Map India 2005'- 8th Annual International Conference and Exhibition on GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography' held during 7-9 February 2005 in The Taj Palace Hotel, New Delhi.


Map 1


Map 2

2.2 Land Use Pattern:
As per village revenue records applicable for the year 2004-2005, the total area of village Chharora is 8,692 Kanal 1 Marla which includes all types of land. The physical feature-wise land classification of the village is given below in table 1. It may be observed from the table that 4,822 Kanal 6 Marla land of the village is cultivable land while 3,869 Kanal 15 Marla is non-cultivable land. Out of cultivable land 3,776 Kanal 8 Marla is irrigated; 1,029 Kanal 10 Marla is Magda (sandy loam) and 16 Kanal 8 Marla is Bhood (Sandy), while out of uncultivable land 3,130 Kanal 7 Marla is Pahad (hill) ; 15 Kanal 4 Marla is Banjer Kadeem (old waste land) while 724 Kanal 4 Marla is Gair-Mumkin (occupied by Abadi/Nala / Tubewells etc). The ownership-wise land classification of the Chharora village is given in table 2.


According to the above table 4,531 Kanal 7 Marla of Chharora village land is of Malikaan (belongs to individual/joint owners) while rest i.e. 4,160 Kanal 14 Marla belongs to different other categories such as: 132 Kanal 14 Marla is of provincial government (occupied by roads etc.), 58 Kanal 5 Marla is of Abadi Deh; 67 Kanal is of Punjab Wakf Board (reserved for Muslim Qabristan - graveyard); 3,707 Kanal 9 Marla is of Panchayat Land, 99 Kanal 2 Marla is Samlat Deh (common land); 15 Kanal 4 Marla is Banjer Kadeem ( Old Waste Land), 16 Marla is of Araji Matruka (custodian) and 95 Kanal 8 Marla is of Samlat-Patti-Bhonta.

2.0. Methodology Adopted for the Evolution of Village Information System (VIS) for Development Planning:- Data Generation at the Lowest Units

A house-to-house and parcel-to-parcel survey was launched to generate data at lowest units i.e. a land parcel level for natural resources and a family level for socio-economic parameters, to have a most comprehensive micro level database and perhaps this exercise is the first of its kind, at least in Tauru block and Mewat region/Gurgaon district in Haryana state.

The Chharora Sizra (village cadastral map) was studied in two parts using spatial technologies including GPS mapping and remote sensing data inputs. Spot survey and data collection questionnaires/schedules were also used. During the first phase of the study that is of the Lal Dora, the settlement part constituting the houses and other structures, a Naksha Najri was prepared while during the second phase, the non-settlement area constituting agricultural land, hills, nalas, wastelands etc, were studied. The Naksha Najri which consists of more than 300 houses/structures & spreaded in 58 Kanal 5 Marla is given as Map 3.

NAKSHA NAJRI* OF THE STUDY AREA-VILLAGE CHHARORA, TEHSIL TAURU, DISTRICT GURGAON (HARYANA)
(Total Land=58 Kanal 5 Marla)

Map 3

Source: *Based on house to house primary survey, precision needs to be verified for specific purpose.

2.3 Socio-Demography and Work Force:
Village Chharora has a total population of 2,350 persons staying in 331 households, out of which 1,256 are males and 1,094 females. The household size is 7. It has significant population between 0-6 year's age group i.e. 622 (330 males and 292 females. There is none from ST community; however, SC community has a population of 101 persons (56 males & 46 females). Sex ratio reflects a very lower level of socio-economic development. It is 871 females per 1000 males. Similar pathetic situation are in 0-6 years category in SC community as far as sex ratio is concerned. The percentage wise proportion of SC population is 4.3 (4.4% male & 4.2% females).

Literacy-wise Chharora village reflects lower level of socio-economic development. Total number of literates is 826, out of which 597 are males and 229 females. The total number of illiterates persons in the village is a little less than double of total literates i.e. 1524, out of which 659 are males and 865 are females. The literacy rate is dismally very low i.e. 47.8%. Sex-wise, it is lower among men than women, i.e. 4.4 % for men & 4.2% for women. The illiteracy rate is 88.2 %. It is higher among women than men i.e. 71.2 % for men & 107.9 % for women.

Employment scenario in the Chharora village also reflects a very lower level of socio-economic status. The total number of workers is 645, out of which 478 are total male workers & 167 female workers. The total numbers of main workers are 374, out of which 369 are males & only 5 females. The number of females is considerable high in marginal workers i.e. 271 persons are marginal workers (109 males & 162 females). A significant portion of village population has non worker as 1,705 persons have no work, out of which 778 are males and 927 are females. Percentage wise, work participation rate (wpr) is 27.4. WPR is higher among men than women, i.e. 38.1% in men & 15.3 % women. The proportion of main workers in village population is 15.9 % (29.8 % for males & 0.5 % females) while proportion for marginal workers is 11.5 % (8.7 % for males & 14.8 % females). The proportion of non-workers is 72 .6%. It is higher for women than men, 84.7 % & 61.9%, respectively.

Occupationally also, the Chharora village reflects a very lower level of socio-economic development. Majority of working population is cultivators. The total number of cultivators is 215 (132 males & 83 females). The number of agricultural labourers is 94 (51 males & 43 females). Number of women is higher than men in household industries i.e 13 & 1, respectively. Number of women is considerably more than 10 times lower among women than men in other workers. There are 294 males and 28 females in total 322 other workers categories. The proportion of cultivators to total workers is 33.3 % (27.6 % males & 49.7 % females). The proportion of agricultural labourers to total workers is 14.6 % (10.7 % males & 25.7 % females). The proportion of workers in household industries to total workers is 2.2 % (0.2 % men & 7.8 % females). The proportion of other workers to the total workers is 49.9 % (61.5 % males & 16.8 % females). Table 3 summaries aforementioned socio-demographic details:

Table 3 : Socio-Demographic Indicators Pertaining to Village Chharora (Based on Census 2001)
S. No. Parameters Unit/Name
1 Name of Gram Panchayat Chharora
2 Name of Sarpanch Aasin
3 Name of Panchayat Secretary Ram Dass
4 Name of Village Patwari Nepal Singh
5 Name of Village Ration Card Holder Azim
6 Name of Block/Sub-district Tauru
7 Name of Tehsil Tauru
8 Name of District Gurgaon
9 Name of State Haryana
10 Name of Socio-cultural Region Mewat
11 Village Hadbast Number 62
12 Total Area of the Village (In hectares) 405
13 Total Population* ( * all is counted as rural population) 2350
14 Total Male Population 1256
15 Total Female Population 1094
16 Total Number of Households 331
17 Household Size 7.0
18 Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males) 871
19 Total Scheduled Caste Population 101
20 Total Male Scheduled Caste Population 55
21 Total Female Scheduled Caste Population 46
22 Sex Ratio (0-6 Years) 885
23 Total Population in Age Group of 0 to 6 Years 622
24 Sex Ratio in Scheduled Castes 836
25 Total Male Population in Age Group of 0 to 6 Years 330
26 Total Female Population in Age Group of 0 to 6 Years 292
27 Proportion of Scheduled Caste Population (%) 4.3
28 Proportion of Male Scheduled Caste Population (%) 4.4
29 Proportion of Female Scheduled Caste Population (%) 4.2
30 Total Number of Literates 826
31 Total Number of Male Literates 597
32 Total Number of Female Literates 229
33 Total Number of Illiterates 1524
34 Total Number of Male Illiterates 659
35 Total Number of Female Illiterates 865
36 Literacy Rate (Percentage)- Total/Persons 47.8
37 Literacy Rate (Percentage)- Total/Males 64.5
38 Literacy Rate (Percentage)- Total/Females 28.6
39 Illiteracy Rate (Percentage)- Total/Persons 88.2
40 Illiteracy Rate (Percentage)- Total/Males 71.2
41 Illiteracy Rate (Percentage)- Total/Females 107.9
42 Total Workers-Persons 645
43 Total Work Participation Rate (Percentage)-Persons 27.4
44 Total Males Workers 478
45 Total Work Participation Rate (Percentage)-Males 38.1
46 Total Female Workers 167
47 Total Work Participation Rate (Percentage)-Females 15.3
48 Total Main Workers-Persons 374
49 Total Main Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Persons 15.9
50 Total Male Main Workers 369
51 Total Main Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Males 29.4
52 Total Female Main Workers 5
53 Total Main Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Females 0.5
54 Total Marginal Workers-Persons 271
55 Total Marginal Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Persons 11.5
56 Total Male Marginal Workers 109
57 Total Main Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Males 8.7
58 Total Female Marginal Workers 162
59 Total Main Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Females 14.8
60 Total Non Workers-Persons 1705
61 Total Non Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Persons 72.6
62 Total Male Non Workers 778
63 Total Non Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Males 61.9
64 Total Female Non Workers 927
65 Total Non Workers Participation Rate (Percentage)-Females 84.7
66 Total Cultivators-Persons 215
67 Proportion of Cultivators to Total Workers (Percentage) –Persons 33.3
68 Total Male Cultivators 132
69 Proportion of Cultivators to Total Workers (Percentage) –Males 27.6
70 Total Female Cultivators 83
71 Proportion of Cultivators to Total Workers (Percentage) –Females 49.7
72 Total Agricultural laborers-Persons 94
73 Proportion of Agricultural Labourers to Total Workers (Percentage) –Persons 14.6
74 Total Male Agricultural Laborers 51
75 Proportion of Agricultural Labourers to Total Workers (Percentage) –Males 10.7
76 Total Female Agricultural Labourers 43
77 Proportion of Agricultural Labourers to Total Workers (Percentage) –Persons 25.7
78 Total Workers in Household Industries-Persons 14
79 Proportion of Workers in Household Industries to Total Workers (Percentage) –Persons 2.2
80 Total Male Workers in Household Industries 1
81 Proportion of Workers in Household Industries to Total Workers (Percentage) –Males 0.2
82 Total Female Workers in Household Industries 13
83 Proportion of Workers in Household Industries to Total Workers (%) – Females 7.8
84 Total Other Workers-Persons 322
85 Proportion of Other Workers to Total Workers (Percentage)-Persons 49.9
86 Total Male Other Workers 294
87 Proportion of Other Workers to Total Workers (Percentage)-Males 61.5
88 Total Female Other Workers 28
89 Proportion of Other Workers to Total Workers (Percentage)-Females 16.8

  • Besides the above socio-economic status, other developmental issues in the village for which local level planning is needed for sustainable development includes non-availability of proper infrastructure; inequitable distribution of resources; lack of scope for growth; non-existence of required educational and training facilities; and lack of appropriate employment opportunities. Further, Villagers continue to lead a miserable life due to having no sewers, have stagnant water in pathways, unplanned and unmanaged garbage dumps & wide spread encroachments on common property resources and public lands etc.
4. Conclusions:
On adoption of the New Panchayati Raj System, particularly 73rd constitutional amendment and stress of Union Government through its Common Minimum Programme (CMP) for implementation of poverty alleviation and Rural Development Schemes by village panchayats, which are accepted as the basic units for development of rural areas in the hierarchy of administrative set up and a revenue village having a well-defined demarcated boundary of its parcels of land documented in cadastre (descriptive, geometric and numeric) at some point of time can be studied scientifically for socio-economic development. For it, development of an Integrated Spatial Village Database (ISVD) involving local people, NGOs and Panchayats etc. for a micro/village level planning is the need of the hour.

Keeping this in view, attribute data pertaining to each and every household as well as to each and every piece of land is being collected and attached to the village cadastral map indicating the location dimension. The infrastructure amenities and facilities were also plotted with the help of spatial technologies. The updation of information was also undertaken with the help of these technologies. Hence, a Village Information System (VIS) is being developed for Development Planning using Geospatial Sciences and demonstrated with the data of Chharora Village in Mewat Region of District Gurgaon (Haryana) India.



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