Earthqauke Disaster Management in China
2 Earthquake Disaster Management Model
The earthquake disaster management in china is like pyramid, the general emergency directing center, led by Chinese State Department and Chinese Seismological Bureau, is the top organization, Provincial government and related Ministries are the second layer , the local government is the third layer, and other organizations or enterprises locate the lowest. The systemic frame can be described in Figure 1. Because of central political system, the earthquake emergency directing center can mobilize the country's all resources to join in all steps in the earthquake preparedness and rescuing. The emergency directing system can be started once the earthquake takes place, the related other organizations and enterprise will take uniform acts according to the arrangement from the general emergency directing center.
Figure 1. The simply frame of earthquake disaster management in china
At present, the earthquake disaster management is run in a samdwich model. The general emergency directing center starts up to emergency direct, supervising and coordinating the regional and provincials emergency rescuing action when seriously destructive earthquake with a terrible disaster takes place. Provincial and Ministries emergency center implements disaster management within the administrative area, carries out their emergency action when seriously destructive earthquake in their administrative area, and accepts the commanding from the general emergency directing center to participate the rescuing and preparedness action in the larger region. The earthquake emergency of regional government, organization, and enterprise consists of the field earthquake emergency action, reporting dynamically the loss and seismic situation to upper government, and coordinating the emergency powers from the outside the earthquake site, they are the important executants to finish the daily and emergency earthquake disaster management.
After the system has been practiced for decades, although it has been proved that the system has a better effect than other systems, some deficiencies have also been found in recent earthquakes. For example, the information of earthquake damage canít be transmitted from the earthquake site to the related organization in time because the information pipelines are often halted by some bureaucrats, although it is in an unusual situation. In order to keep the information to move smoothly and fluently into the networks of earthquake preparedness and rescuing, the Chinese government had started a series of programs to set up the digital networks since 1990, the digital networks, based on GIS, GPS and RS, take in a lot of new achievements in earthquake engineering and information science. With the aid of the digital networks, the earthquake disaster management in china is entering new era. Following contents show the new development of earthquake disaster management in China.