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Characteristic of Urban Development and Commuters in Metropolitan Bandung


Commuter uses Commuting Train
As has been mentioned before this paper is intended to figure out characterize of origin and destination of commuter use local train as a way to draw linkages between development of residential area and commuting train. In order to achieve the objective in the research has been distributed questioner on 11 train stations which used for commuting train.

Based on the survey, majority of respondents is male, while by age majority is between 20 – 40 years old and by occupation majority is passengers who are working in private sector. Based on the frequency of passenger in using commuting train has a variant between passengers who use commuting train regularly and the ones who use commuting train irregularly with close proportion. The purpose of trip, on working day the majority of passenger are for working while on holiday majority are for social activities (family visit and recreation)

Based on figure 3, it can be seen that majority of responden are moving from sub urban into urban area of BMA with respondent from eastern part of BMA are bigger than the ones from western part. Comparing to growth of built up area as drawn on figure 1, passenger of comuting train has positive linkages with the growth direction of built up area.


Figure 3. Origin and Desti-nation of Train’s Passengers


In relation to residential area, there are three residential patterns served by the commuter train of Bandung namely:

  1. Formal residential areas that have been planed and developed as a well structure housing estates with adequate infrastructure support.
  2. Informal residential areas consist of traditional kampong, slum and high density areas.
  3. Mixed residential areas as the combination of the formal and informal residential areas.
Those typology have different linkages with the commuter railway system. There are elements of differentiation such as location, the level of urbanization, socio – activities in the urban – sub urban areas, and demographic characteristics. In Bandung case the commuting journey dominated by the journey of sub urban resident to work and get social services in urban areas

Characterize of Commuters’s origin
Based on figure 3, the origins of commuter are mainly coming from Distrik Rancaekek, Cikancung and Cicalengka on the eastern part of BMA, and District Padalarang on the western part of BMA.


Figure 4. Origin of train’s Passengers


District Rancaekek, Cikancung, and Cicalengka are sub urban of BMA on the eastern part, while District Padalarang and Ngamprah are sub urban of BMA on the western part. The train stations on the east are Rancaekek, Haurpugur and Cicalengka, and station Padalarang on the west. Characterize of those district are still dominated by agriculture such as garden and padi field, eventhough built up area is also growing rapidly.

Based on characteristic of residential area, passenger from Station Rancaekek mainly come from housing which are develop by developer (formal residential area) and passenger on others station are mainly coming from housing which are develop by individual (informal residential area). The characterized of passenger origin is related to domination of residential area surrounding the station. Station Rancaekek is located in formal residential area, while other statiun are located near informal residential area. Those condition has impacted to number of train passenger, the closer to formal residential area the more passenger of the train.

Characterize of Commuters’s Destination
Main destination of passenger comuting is Bandung City with main stations are Station Bandung, Station Kiaracondong, Station Ciroyom.


Figure 5. Destination of Train’s Passengers and Its Characteristic


Those three station are location transit for passenger to go to final destination. Final destination of passenger in Station Bandung are mainly splited in two area i.e office, school, service and trade area, while passenger in Station Kiaracondong and Ciroyom are mainly go to trade and service area.

Looking to transportation facilities, mainly passenger use motorcycle, bicycle, three clyce, and by walking from their home to train station, while from final station to final destination they mainly use paratransit (angkot). Accessibility of passenger from their house to station and from station to final destination will influence number of train passenger. Furthermore suburban rail network should be supported by adequate feeder road transport system, an integrated urban and suburban public transport system.


Figure 7. Availability of Public Transport Connecting Urban and Sub Urban Area


Characterize of Spatial Structure between Urban and Sub Urban Area along Railways Network
Along railways network, there are some spatial condition that are very different with condition along road, namely:

  1. There is no linear development along railways. Along railways, activities concentrated only nearby node or train station.
  2. There is clear buffer zone between urban and sub urban area. The buffer zone can be functioned as agriculture activities and also as protected area
Those characterize along railways network in between urban and sub urban area, indicated development commuting train in metropolitan area, not only provide mass transportation but also support in controlling sprawl development.


Figure 6. Spatial Structure of Urban and Sub Urban Area on Commuting Train Network


CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATION
  • In regard to spatial development, the development of railways and train are able to minimize ribbon development along railways. This condition show that development of commuting train not only provides mass transportation but also be able to support more appropriate spatial development by minimize built up area along the railways.
  • In regard to the condition some policy implication needed to be taken into account. One of them is on providing land for housing for low and middle income people should be done in harmony with policy in spreading activities into sub urban and providing good access espescially for low and middle income people to achieve facilities and working place.
  • Another implication needed to be taken into account is promoting synergi in developing spatial structure and spatial planning process between urban and sub urban activities with railways. Those synergi should covers strategy for:
  • Controling protected area and agriculture area in between urban and sub urban.
  • Managing urban activities both on scale and its location based on availabity railway network through develop node/train station as one of center for urban activities.
  • Promoting location of housing/residential area nearby node/train station and creating new commuting station near existing residential area and center of urban activities.
References:
  • Baiquni, M. 2004. Urbanization And Urban Settlement Dualism : A Case Study and Research Agenda of Yogyakarta, Indonesia


  • Kuswara, 2005. Origin and Destination Mapping of Commuter in Metropolitan Bandung, Paper Presented on International Seminar of Habitat Days : “MDGs and The City”, Bandung September 30, 2005


  • Research Institute for Human Settlement (RIHS), 2005. Kajian Indikator Penilaian Kawasan Untuk Menetapkan Pola Penyediaan Permukiman Perkotaan (Development Indicator for Provision Urban Settlement), Final Report


  • Tamin, Ofyar Z. 2005, Integrated Public And Road Transport Network System For Bandung Metropolitan Area (Indonesia), Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1281 - 1300,


  • Waddell, Paul, 2001, Towards a Behavioral Integration of Land Use and Transportation Modeling. 9th International Association for Travel Behavior Research Conference. Queensland, Australia

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