Urban Sprawl |
Fringe Area Development |
Urban Agglomeration |
Emerging Technologies |
Application of GIS to describe historical urban development of Kharga city, Egypt
Arch. Ashraf M. S. Mahrous
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Architecture
Faculty of Engineering AL-Minia University, Egypt
Prof. Eng. Mojmir Kyselka, Ph.D.
Faculty of Architecture, VUT Brno, Czech republic
Assoc. Prof. Peter Spica. Ph.D.
Arch. Dept. faculty of civil Slovak technical University
The cities liken the trees; both of them grow under the natural limits. These limits effect in the formulation of the city master plan. The Historical urban development of cities is usually used for defining the main direction of city’s development. One of the objectives of any master plan is to guiding urban development by study the natural properties of the city borders and determines the suitable direction of city growth. (Antar Korain 1997, P. 153). Rodgers has suggested that the second part of master plan must be historical background of the city; this background aims to define the effective factors in the urban development. (A. K. Alam, 1983) the historical background concludes the general information to understand the effective factors on the city’s form. (Antar Korain 1997, P. 157). The need for GIS is driven by factors such as population growth and urbanization, which in turn create various types geo-referenced data. Information of this kind lends itself well to the analytical capabilities of GIS. (Henk J. Scholten and John C. H. Stillwell, 1990, P. 30) GIS has ability to create, store, edit, visualize, analyze, and present the data which is needed for carrying out the historical urban growth of the city.
This paper aims to support the master plan of Kharga City by defining the main direction growth of Kharga City by reading the old and recent historical urban growth.
The old historical growth
The oases area, in Egypt's western desert, has played a significant role over various ages of the old Egyptian history, Kharga long history and ancient civilization is described in several monuments which had registered many ages starting from B.C. until the Islamic age.
The 2nd dynasty (5000 B.C.) had registered in Gabal El-Tayer monuments that Kharga was famous for agricultural activity.
Kharga oasis in the Pharaonic era was called "plough ", Dakhla oasis was termed "southern oasis", while Farafra oasis was named "cow", which clearly speaks of welfare, as such areas were fully cultivated. Kharga and Dakhla oases, in the Pharaonic era, were one region affiliated to "Thani" region near Suhag considering it the vital defense front-line of Egypt to stand against any offensive either from the west or the south. Pharaonic 26th dynasty had constructed in Kharga Hebas temple since 660:565 BC, the 27th dynasty had constructed Ghewata temple since 522 BC.
Persian Qambiz invaded Egypt in the 6th Century BC, King the first Dara had finished the engraving of Hebas and Ghewata temples which was castle looking at any invaders coming through the Darb AL Arbaen.
In the Greek-roman era, the agriculture had developed, Romans had dug wells in such fertile lands which were known as “Roman eyes”. The Romans also had created in architectural field, during Antonus’s reign at the beginning of the 2nd century many monuments had been built such as AL-Nadoura temple, EL-Dear fortress, Qaser AL-Zian temple. (Ashraf M. S. Mahrous, 1998)
In third and fourth centuries BC, when Roman suppression towards Christians increased, too many of Egypt's Copts (Christians) fled to such oases, EL-Bagawat cemetery and church, Aen Mostfa AL-Kashef monastery, AL-Monera monastery, and Shams AL-Dean monastery are indicates a Christian presence on Kharga in the advent of Islam to Egypt.
Since the Islam entry into Egypt the life had start to be stable and safety. The oases were under the light and the simple life was the main feature of the oases, which were considered separated for the life in Egypt, it was named “nomads life” until beginning of the domination republican on Egypt.