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Land Pooling Technique : A tool for plan implementation - An Indian experience
K. T. Gurumukhi
Chief Planner,Town & Country Planning Organisation,Government of India, New Delhi India
1.1 As per latest Census count 2001, the total urban population of India is 285 million which account for 27.78 percent of the total population of 1027 million in India. During the last century number of towns and cities have multiplied by two and half fold while the urban population has increased more than 10 times. Today, we have the second largest urban system in the world. Unplanned and uncontrolled urban growth have outpaced the planning efforts in urban areas. With the result the urbanization in response to economic and population growth momentum have serious effects on urban living environment. Master Plan approach currently in vogue is an important instrument of spatial planning process which aims at channelising the built urban form and directing the growth of urban areas, implementation of Master Plan for various towns and cities may not be very encouraging on the whole but certain development schemes taken up as part of Master Plan or as prelude to development are successful experiments in many states. Town Planning Scheme on land pooling technique has been successfully used for plan implementation in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and some other states. This facilitated assembly and development of urban land without resorting to compulsory land acquisition under Land Acquisition Act 1894. Through the mechanism of Town Planning Scheme urban local bodies launched land pooling and redistribution process in urban areas ensuring self-serviced planned and orderly development of towns and cities.
1.2 Before analyzing the effectiveness of Town Planning Schemes in Indian situation the scale and magnitude of urbanization and its resultant problems and the efficacy of the instruments for planned development need to be seen. India has entered the 21st Century with urban population of 285 million which is even greater than the total population of United States of America. The million plus cities have also grown substantially in terms of number, size and area. As per 2001 Census there are 35 million plus cities which account for about one third of India's urban population. The urbanization scenario reveal that the percentage of urban population which was about 20% in 1971 may increase to about 41 to 45% by 2021. In absolute terms it may increase to about 550 million by 2021. On the other hand urban decadal population growth has gone down from 46% during 1971 - 81 to about 31% during the last decade of 1991 - 2001. Similarly, the metropolitan cities which were just 5 in 1951 have increased by 2001 and may go up to 75 by 2021. Table - I indicates the growth pattern of town and cities since 1951.
1.3 The above table and figures reveal that although decadal urban growth rate has declined there is a steady increase in urbanization level and absolute urban population. Major concentration of urban growth is mainly in large and metropolitan cities. It clearly implies that with rapid growth of Class - I and million plus cities the problem of land management is becoming more and more complex as the years pass by. An interesting feature of urban growth in Indian situation is almost equal increase of urban population by natural growth and by migration each accounting for about 40% while the rest of the urban growth may be attributed to re-classification of rural areas into urban centers. Most of the natural increase in large and metro cities confines within the same cities whereas migration streams flow from villages to towns and towns to large cities. As it has happened in some of the developed countries but in India urbanization process is unidirectional because there is hardly flow of migration from large cities towards rural India. It, therefore, clearly indicates that the present trends, if not reversed intentionally, would continue in future leading to massive increase in the size of large and metro cities. Since the Sixth Five Year Plan, it has been recognized that urbanization can make a positive contribution to economic growth provided the economic base of the cities is strengthened and productivity increased. In this regard the planning process is bound to play a significant role to channelise the urbanization and growth to the desired direction.
2. Urban Planning System
2.1 In India, urban planning is a state subject and the Central Government / Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation lays downs policies and guidelines for urban planning and development for the country. The urban planning projects and schemes are taken up either in the state sector or in the central sector for the funding is provided by the central government either by grants or on matching basis or by the state government based on their capacity of implementation. The constituent states and Union Territories are required to enact their own Urban and Regional Planning and Development Acts. These Acts are by and large based on Model Regional Planning and Development Law prepared by TCPO. At present urban planning and development activities are undertaken at three levels viz. Central, State and Local Levels.
2.2 At the central level, Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Housing and Urban Development Division, Planning Commission of the Government of India are the main agencies dealing with the subject of urban planning and development. Central Town and Country Planning Organisation (TCPO), Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), Central Public Health Engineering and Environment Organisation (CPHEEO) are the important nodal organisations which provide technical assistance and advice in urban development planning and related issues. The Central Government agencies perform advisory and coordinating role for promoting orderly urbanization through policy planning and allocation of plan funds thereof to the states. These agencies also monitor central sector schemes, provide incentives to achieve national goals and objectives and facilitate inter-state coordination. The central agencies formulate model planning and development legislation, guidelines and develop and disseminate innovative approach and techniques for improving efficacy of urban planning and development systems.
2.3 At state level, urban planning is governed by respective State Town Planning Acts and other development Acts. State Town & Country Planning Departments in one form or the other have been established almost in all the States and Union Territories of the country. Although role and function of Town Planning Departments may vary from state to state and by and large preparation of Master Plans / Development Plans, Regional Plans, Town Planning Schemes, Zonal Plans, Development Scheme, Area Schemes, implementation of central and state sector schemes, development control and planning permissions are their major functions. State level policy and strategy planning are also worked out to prepare and implement development plans and improvement schemes.
2.4 At local level, the planning administration field offices of the State Town Planning Departments have been established either at District or administrative division level. In most of the towns and cities urban local bodies in the form of Municipal Corporation or Municipal Council or Nagar Panchayat have been constituted. In some of the large and metropolitan areas Planning and Development Authorities have also been constituted to look after the planning and development of the respective towns. These authorities have been created either under State Town Planning Acts or complementary Development Authority Act. In some cases powers have also been delegated to municipalities for preparing plans and for giving development permissions.
2.5 Planning and development activities are taken up in three concentric zones depending upon the extent and spread of the respective town or city. The first zone is comprised of municipal area strictly within municipal limits. The planning and development in this zone comes under the jurisdiction of the respective urban local body. The second concentric zone around the municipal limits is covered by the Urban Development Authority or by the Local Planning Area Authority. The outer zone consisting of outskirt area, urban fringe and rural environs is either part of Urban Development Authority or outside the local planning areas is controlled by city Development Authority or Village Panchayats. In the Zone I and Zone I I development activities and urban growth are generally regulated through the Master Plan / Development Plan of the area. In this area particularly Zone I I scope for town planning scheme is quite encouraging. In Zone I I I either there is no development control or very marginal control and this is the zone where most of the development is taking place. The core is almost developed and there is very little scope for further growth. The efforts in this zone are generally geared up towards strengthening the existing set up. In the fringe areas planning and development mechanism need to be followed in a phased manner through the instrument of Master Plan / Development Plan to tackle the problem of urbanization on a comprehensive basis.
3. Master Planning Approach
3.1 Over the years Master Plan / Development Plan approach has emerged as an important instruments of urban planning systems in the country. Initially, process of Master Plan followed in India desired its base from the erstwhile comprehensive planning system under the 1947 Town and Country Plan Act of United Kingdom. Later on a Model Town and Country Planning Legislation was prepared which formed the basis for State Town and Country Planning Acts. The Master Plan for Delhi (1961 - 81) prepared by TCPO was perhaps the first statutory comprehensive development plan in the country. The concepts, measures, methodology and techniques known as Delhi Imperatives have been widely used while preparing Master Plan for various towns and cities in the country.
3.2 The momentum in Master Plan Approach was, however, generated during the Third Five Year Plan (1961 - 66) when Central Government provided cent percent financial assistance to the State Governments to set up town planning departments for preparation of Comprehensive Master Plans for the fast growing cities and towns under a legislative framework based on the Model law formulated by TCPO. Since then, process of Master Plan picked up and concerted efforts were made for providing appropriate legislative support for preparation, enforcement and implementation of the Master Plans. As per the study conducted by TCPO in 1995, about 879 Master Plans were prepared under the State Town Planning Acts, Town Improvement Trust Acts, City Development Authority Acts and other related Acts / Legislation. Master Plan for 319 towns / cities were in the process of preparation and in the draft stage (Table - I I). Some of the states also have non-statutory plans mainly for guidance and policy purpose as they could not be approved due to lack of appropriate legislative framework.
3.3 Scope of Master Plan has clearly defined in various Town Planning Acts and other relevant legislation. Basically it is a statutory instrument for controlling, directing and promoting the sound and rational development and / or re-development of urban areas with a view to achieving maximum economic, social and aesthetic benefits. Broadly it indicates the proposals for allocating the use of land for various purposes such as residential, industrial, commercial, recreational, public and semi-public, etc. It proposes a network of roads and street pattern and traffic circulation system for present and future requirements. It identifies areas required to be preserved and conserved and provides for all such matters as may be necessary for the development of the respective town / city or as may be prescribed by the State Government and other specialized agencies. It indicates the stages by which the plan is proposed to be implemented. The Master Plan is followed by preparation of Zonal Development Plan, Development Schemes, Town Planning Schemes, etc. which indicates details and specific location of various activities, facilities and services as suggested in the Master Plan. Such detailed plans and Town Planning Schemes are necessary for smooth enforcement and implementation of Master Plan.
3.4 Urban land development is being controlled by following the objectives of access to urban land ensuring optimum social use of land, making available adequate quantity of serviced land at reasonable price to both public authorities and individuals, encouraging cooperative community efforts in the field of land developments, and preventing concentrating of urban land in a few private hands safeguarding the interest of economically weaker section of the society. Master Plan inter-alia contains zoning and sub-division regulation, development control norms and building bye-laws which are the instruments to access, use and control of land. Various models for assemblage of land have been in force as part of urban planning and development. The concept of Accommodation Reservation (AR) and Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) are the new policy instruments for resolving the problems of land acquisition / land assembly to some extent. Large scale acquisition, development and disposal of land under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 mechanism, negotiated land purchased under Haryana Development and Regulation of Urban Areas Act, 1975 and joint sector approach of Uttar Pradesh Government empowering development authorities to provide land to private developers on license basis for development and construction of dwelling units are some other techniques followed for land assembly and development. In addition, Town Planning Schemes for pooling of land of identified owners for development as a unit by the planning agency is an important and pooling technique in vogue since beginning of the twentieth century. Under this technique land is adjusted by sharing the same in a common pool where landowners become partners in the city planning process, which help in implementation of city Master Plans in various states. A relationship of Town Planning Scheme as a tool for implementation of Master Plan is depicted below.
4. Town Planning Scheme
4.1 The conventional approach to land acquisition, even for public purpose, has become a time consuming process. Sometimes it leads to unending litigation and encourage speculative tendencies. The acquisition process besides being time consuming also becomes cost prohibitive while on the other hand the owners, whose lands are acquired, feel that they have not been adequately compensated. The Town Planning Scheme is being followed as an alternative method to assemble the land for urban development activities in a faster and financially affordable manner without taking recourse to compulsory acquisition of land. Town Planning Scheme (TPS) is in operation in some of the states of Indian Union in the form of plot reconstitution. It is basically an area planning technique patterned on the concept of land re-adjustment. In the state of Maharashtra, which is a pioneer in the field of TPS it is implemented under the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, 1966. In Gujarat, it is implemented under the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976.
4.2 In Gujarat, Town Planning Schemes as an instrument for urban development has a long history. The first Town Planning Scheme was taken up as early as in 1917 for Jamalpur area of Ahmedabad city. Perhaps Jamalpur area Town Planning Scheme was also the first TPS in the country. The Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915 provided for growth and development of various parts of the city which facilitated taking up Town Planning Schemes. The Act was modified and re-enacted in 1954 which made it obligatory for each local authority to carry out a survey of the area within its jurisdiction for preparation of development plan. With the re-organization of states in India in 1956, Gujarat was carved out as a separate state. After re-organization the state government enacted a separate Law known as the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976. This Act provides for Town Planning Scheme in detail. Under this Act the Town Planning Scheme is divided into 2 parts namely physical planning of the scheme and financial aspects of the scheme. It identifies the stages of TPS in the form of Draft Scheme. It identifies the stages of TPS in the form of Draft Scheme, Preliminary Scheme and the Final Scheme with a view to expedite the process of implementation of different stages.
4.3 Legal provisions for TPS in the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act envisage a socialistic and transparent approach for preparation and implementation of Town Planning Schemes. The concept of TPS is akin to land pooling technique in which lands of different owners is pooled together and after proper planning the same is re-distributed in a properly reconstituted plots after deducting the land required for open spaces, social infrastructure, services, housing for the weaker section and street network. The process enables the local planning authority to develop the commonly pooled land without compulsorily acquiring the same. It facilitates the freedom of planning and design and the control on the growth and development. The practice of TPS is extensively in use in the Gujarat State.
4.4 In order to implement the Master Plan / Development Plan prepared under the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976, Town Planning Schemes are prepared at micro level for an area of about 100 hectares particularly in those pockets which are under pressure of urban development and need priority attention. The concept behind taking 100 hectares is that TPS becomes manageable and viable scheme for preparation and implementation at local level. The scheme is conceptualized as a joint venture between the local authority and the owners of land who voluntarily agree to pool their land, redistribute the reconstituted plots of land among themselves and share the development cost. For preparation of scheme land parcels with common ownership are marked with original survey number / plot number on a map. All such original plots form one area for planning purpose. In the layout plan taking out the area for roads and streets and public and semi-public spaces the remaining area is planned in regular plots known as final plots. The final plots though reduced in size better in shape, buildability and accessibility are allocated to the land owners preferably in close proximity to their original plots. The owner also gets compensation for the area reduced for public spaces and roads. Since the reconstituted plot has the better accessibility and good potential for development, its value gets enhanced. The difference between enhanced value and the original value is liable to get. Part of such increment in land value is contributed for the cost of development work in the scheme. Under the Act it is clearly provided that the landowners will get the net amount of the increment value of the plot worked out after deducting the amount of compensation payable for the loss in area.
4.5 As part of the stages of TPS in the first stage a draft scheme is as indicated in the figure -
A development authority selects an area for planning Town Planning Scheme and boundary of the same is demarcated on the map
The draft is prepared after undertaking detailed and accurate total station survey to mark the land boundary, existing physical features of the site including topography, slope, plot boundaries, existing structure etc. Along with survey data is collected from revenue record to establish ownership of land. After that a base map is prepared incorporating the proposal of Master Plan/Development Plan for the identified site of TPS. For planning purpose adjacent plot with the same owner are grouped together as one original plot. A map showing original plots is then prepared as indicted in the figure
Once the map of the original plot is ready value of the original plot is assessed on the basis of recent transaction recorded in the adjoining areas. Keeping in view the proposal of the Development Plan recorded in the draft map layout plan and road network providing access to all the plots in the area is designed.
In the layout plan proportion of land likely to be deducted from each original plot for the provision of roads, public space, social infrastructure is worked out and the remaining area is reconstituted giving proper shape so as to locate the final plot nearer to the original plot.
4.6 Once the draft TPS is ready it is notified and all the land owners are called for a meeting by the authority. The scheme is explained to the owners and taking into consideration the views of the owners, if need be, the scheme is marginally modified. The corrected scheme is officially published in the Gazette for objection and suggestions to be accepted in one month period after notification. After considering the objections and suggestions the draft scheme is given a final shape.
At this stage also the financial aspects of the scheme are worked out in detail. In this process first the original plot value is worked out keeping in view the transaction made in this area. Compensation likely to be paid to the owner for the land deducted from his original plot is also worked. A semi-final-value of the final plot is worked out on the basis of infrastructure proposed to be provided in the scheme area. A final plot value is also worked out taking into consideration that the proposed infrastructure is provided in the scheme. Difference between the semi-final plot value and final plot value is considered to be an increment in value, which could result from implementation of the TP scheme. Half of the increment in value is adjusted against the compensation and the net demand/contribution of the owner is worked out. Simultaneously, the development cost and other infrastructure cost for implementation of the scheme are also worked out. The draft scheme continuing the physical proposal and the financial details along with financial part of the compensation and contribution of each plot are then submitted to the Government for approval which is called draft scheme. Once the Government approves the draft scheme it is referred to as Preliminary scheme.
4.7 In the second stage of TPS known as Preliminary Scheme, State Government appoints an officer who acts as a Quasi-Judicial Officer/Arbitrator between the Development Authority and land owners to finalise the TP Scheme. The officer is designated as the Town Planning Officer for the scheme. The Town Planning Officer verifies all the documents submitted alongwith the Draft Scheme. He collects the additional record and information of the scheme, if need be. He also serves the notice to all the owners individually requesting them to make the representation before him if the owners desire so. Based on the representation made by the owners, additional records, consultation with the Development Authority,Town Planning Officer makes appropriate changes, if necessary, in the physical proposals of the scheme. After making final proposals another chance is given to the owners to present their views or grievance, if any. The development authority is also consulted with regard to the final proposal of the scheme. Thereafter physical proposals of the scheme are submitted by the Town Planning Officers to the Government for approval. After approval of the scheme the Government, Development Authority initiates the implementation of the scheme.
4.8 In the last stage of the scheme known as Final Scheme the Town Planning Officer verifies the financial aspects of the scheme by taking into consideration the sales transaction taken place. After verifying the financial details worked out by the Development Authority, during the preparation of the scheme at draft stage, he invites the objections from the affected persons. The objections are invited with respect to financial part of the scheme i.e. original plot value, semi final-plot-value, final-plot-value, compensation, net contribution and demand of the owners. As soon as the financial part of the scheme is finalised it is sent to the Government for approval. The Government notifies the final scheme in the Gazette. After approval the scheme is known as Final Town Planning Scheme. At this stage the Development Authority can start implementing financial part of the scheme i.e. payment of Compensation to the land owners and collection of money from the plot owner. Although various stages involved in the TPS makes the process tedious and contentions it functions well solely because the owners know that on implementation of the TPS they will be the net gainers. Splitting of the scheme in two parts i.e. preliminary (physical part and final (financial part) infact expedite the process in terms of physical implementation of the scheme and finalizing the scheme by the Town Planning Officer. This provides transparency and wide scope for participation of the community affected by the scheme.
4.9 A typical case study of Prahlad Nagar Town Planning scheme of Ahmedabad reveal an interesting picture. In Ahmedabad delivery of serviced land has been managed through a 2 step process. At the first level decadal macro level Development Plan for the entire city has been prepared. While at the second level large number of micro level Town Planning Scheme covering about 100 ha. Each are prepared for the area identified for new development. Development plan indicated about 65 sq.km. of land for new urban development. It also laid out the sequence in which preparation and implementation of Town Planning Scheme would be taken up in the areas demarcated as a zone for new growth. Development Plan envisaged taking up of 113 Town Planning Schemes in Ahmedabad. Prahlad Nagar T.P. Scheme is considered as Model scheme to demonstrate the merits of the T.P. Scheme to emulate by others cities not only in Gujarat but across the country as well which are striving to provide well planned serviced land for rapid urban growth.
4.10 Prahlad Nagar located in the southwest corner of Ahmedabad covers an area of 162 hectares. Although 4 town-planning schemes have been prepared to cover the area for implementation purpose all the four schemes have been taken together as one project. Initially it was planned for a density of 150 persons per hectare but the density may increase to the saturation level of 400 persons per hectare by 2020 when it will accommodate about 64800 persons. The T.P. Scheme of Prahlad nagar forms an integral part of City Development Plan. Layout Plan has provided proper hierarchy of road and street pattern and distribution of public space and community facilities as per Development Plan norms. The project area had 297 plots as original plots which have been reconstituted into 286 final plots. All the final plots have approximately 52% of the area of the original plots. The 48% land availed after reconstitution has been used for roads and social amenities and also used as resource to recover the cost of providing infrastructure. The break up of the landuse structure of the scheme is given below.
4.11 Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority implemented Prahladnagar TP Scheme at a faster speed. Authority took possession of land under road with consent of land owners and constructed road with street lighting on priority. With their consent the reconstituted plots were given to the land owners and the land for the public purpose and road was taken by the Authority. On all such public purpose land Authority started development works by developing parks, gardens and community facilities and social services. In fact before approval and finalisation of the scheme by the Govt. the authority has completed implementation of social and physical infrastructure.
At present 15 T.P. Schemes are under preparation stage covering an area of 1660 hectares in Ahmedabad. In most of these 15 TP Schemes construction of major roads provision of street lights tree plantation, development of gardens, rain water harvesting system, laying of sewerage lines within the scheme area is already complete within 3 years time span. As such Prahladnagar is a good example of TP Scheme with its well planned design, timely implementation and financial viability. In about 50 percent of final reconstituted plots development permission has also been issued and the people have started living in the area. Another example of Town Planning Scheme where computation of land value has been attempted using computer based GIS technique. Plan of original plots and final plots along with existing structures clearly show remarkable improvement in layout of street pattern and making the plots of regular shape.
5.1 A critical examination of the TP Scheme reveals that the technique is rational, equitable and democratic. By implementing TP Scheme the buildability of the reconstituted plot increases with regular shape, improvement in accessibility, increased potential of development, availability of social and physical infrastructure in the neighborhood, better linkage with other part of the city and improvement in living environment.
5.2 Land is rightly used as a resource with the increased buildability, market value of the land goes up. This results in accruing increment in land value to the owner. As the increment in land value is attributed to the implementation of the TP Scheme the Development Authority also takes part of it and use for development work. Thus increment value is ploughed back for developing infrastructure and other facilities.
5.3 The owners are the net gainers from the TP Scheme as such they can contribute towards the cost of development in proportion to their benefits. The owners also receive compensation for the land deducted from original plots for the roads and public purposes. Owners also get increment of land value in future.
5.4 Under TP scheme area for roads and public purposes is taken without dispossessing the owner totally. Such area for public purposes is almost equitably shared by all the landowners of the scheme in proportion to the area of their original plot.
5.5 TP Scheme is one of important planning and development scheme at local level, which encourages full participation of public/affected community at various stages of the scheme. People's participation is ensured under the provision of the Act and as such local authorities give due consideration to the land owners in preparation and implementation of the scheme.
5.6 Since the inception of TP Scheme development momentum is created and the owners desire various benefits out of the scheme. While retaining half of the incremental value at the stage of the scheme preparation, owners also get benefit with acceleration of development momentum rapidly in future also. They have easy access to the basic civic facilities available in the neighborhood.
5.7 The Authority is also gainer under the T.P. Scheme by getting land almost freely without compulsory acquisition for roads and public facilities and services. Authority can develop basic services by using the land as a resource by preparing TP Scheme.
5.8 The T.P. scheme enable local authority to raise finances and resources through contribution from the direct beneficiaries and owners of land in proportion to the benefits received by the owners.
5.9 Through T.P. scheme land for public facilities and services are made available at right location and at right time. All such public purpose lands are equitably apportioned from the landowners. There is hardly any case in which landowners are totally deprived of their holdings like in case of land acquisition.
5.10 Planning efforts can keep pace with the growth and rapid urbanization thereby reducing scope for haphazard urban sprawl. TP Schemes facilitates decentralization of planned development activities in core as well as outlying areas of the city.
5.11 Town planning scheme encourages optimum use of scarce developed urban land through efficient layouts and using of urban land as resource to check land speculation.
5.12. So far in Ahmedabad city alone about 12000 hectares of land covered under T.P. scheme clearly indicate the success of land pooling technique as a tool to assemble land and accelerate development. It has facilitated implementation of Development Plan for Ahmedabad city to a great extent.
5.13 Several innovation introduced in TP Scheme process like total station surveys facilitate increased accuracy, reduces subsequent delays and help in achieving speedier implementation of the TP Scheme.
5.14 TP Scheme process has also been computerized for effective planning and implementation. Private consultants are also engaged to prepare draft scheme.
5.15 Effective people's participation in the planning process ensures timely consent of land owner which reduces the scope of future litigation and conflicts during implementation of the scheme.
5.16 The Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976 has also been modified to allow appropriation of land to create a land bank. Development Authority is allowed to sell such land bank or use the same to raise the resources to implement T.P. Schemes. As such now Authority need not wait for the finalization and approval of the scheme and to implement Scheme. Success of Town Planning scheme can be assessed from the fact that in Gujarat as many as about 150 Town Planning Scheme are in operation and T.P. Schemes have become a very useful tool for implementing Development Plan proposals.
5.17 The T.P. Schemes has successfully tried in Ahmedabad and other large cities of Gujarat and Maharashtra. With the help of public awareness programme it can also be implemented smoothly in various small and medium towns. All such land-pooling scheme if prepared within the framework of development plan would reduce drastically the time taken during the process of approval.
5.18 Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines prepared by the Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation, the T.P. Scheme termed as Land Pooling Scheme has been included as a technique for assembling land for planning and development. A separate chapter on Land Pooling Scheme has also been included in the Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law. It envisages that every planning and development authority shall for the purpose of implementation of the plan proposals contained in the plan, prepare one or more land pooling schemes for any part of the area within its jurisdiction. It also provides time frame and procedure for preparation, approval and implementation of land Pooling Scheme.
Table - II