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Monitoring The Implementation Of State Development Plan Using GIS: The Case of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia


Ahris Yaakup
Department of Urban and Regional Planning,
Faculty of Built Environment,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
b-haris@utm.my

Susilawati Sulaiman
Department of Urban and Regional Planning,
Faculty of Built Environment,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
ugisp_bip@yahoo.com Hamdan Mohd Kassim
Department of Town and Country Planning Negeri Sembilan,
3rd Floor, Block A,
Wisma Negeri, 70646 Seremban,
Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
jpbdns@sukns.gov.my

Ruaidah Idris
Department of Town and Country Planning Negeri Sembilan,
3rd Floor, Block A,
Wisma Negeri, 70646 Seremban,
Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.


Abstract
Proper and effective planning generally involves close monitoring of development growth, plans review as well as policy appraisal which calls for comprehensive information concerning the past, present and future. In this context, the task of monitoring and reviewing planís progress involves the assembly and integration of geographic information. The use of GIS as the major component of a planning support system is therefore significant as spatial information concerning planning and development needs to be organized and updated frequently. Due to this consideration, the State of Negeri Sembilan decided to develop its own GIS-based planning support system to monitor the implementation of its development plans over time. A distinctive feature of the Negeri Sembilan GIS (GIS9) that was developed for this purpose is that it is capable of operating on two distinct levels of planning Ė the state and district level. It was developed as a planning support system to consider alternative spatial development strategies as well as visualise development potentials involved in land use planning. The database is constructed through collaboration and data sharing effort from various government departments and agencies. GIS9 also provides updating facilities and interactive data display. The monitoring system that has been developed for both the state and district levels make it possible to evaluate the success of plan implementation. The implementation of GIS9 has contributed to raising recognition of the importance of vertical integration of the developed and maintained datasets at regional and local levels. While the adopted data sharing framework is seen as a strong basis for extension of GIS development as well as integration and coordination in all state and local agencies involved in ensuring the success of the implementation of state development plan. This paper will discuss the approach and strategies employed in the preparation of GIS9 database and development plans monitoring system for the State of Negeri Sembilan.

INTRODUCTION
Proper and effective planning generally involves close monitoring of development growth, plans review as well as policy appraisal which calls for comprehensive information concerning the past, present and future. Monitoring the implementation of development plans are crucial to ensure that activities are in line with the implementation schedule and whether the resources or implementation procedures are used effectively. Monitoring procedures enable timely action to be taken to correct the deficiencies detected.

Apparently, the processes of monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of development plans are related and go together. In this context, the task of monitoring and reviewing planís progress involves the assembly and integration of information from a wide range of sources. This paper will discuss the approach and strategies employed in the preparation of Negeri Sembilan GIS (GIS9) which include the database and development plans monitoring system for the State of Negeri Sembilan.

PLANNING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MONITORING IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLAN
In countries undergoing rapid economic development such as Malaysia, a Planning Support System is undoubtedly an important feature. Planning support system (PSS) and decision support system (DSS) are among tools for achieving planning quality in optimum development. Ideally, the key elements in the monitoring system include the definition of information needs; institutional framework; data collection and dissemination instruments, and improving functioning capacity.

The evolution of computer and information over the last few decades provides significant impact on the planning profession. Among the technological advancements, after microcomputer per se, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is perhaps the one that has been most attractive for spatial representation, as geospatial data and technologies apparently enable more effective and efficient operations, improved communications, and, ultimately, better decision-making. With its powerful capacity for spatial data management, analysis and visualisation, GIS systems enable data from wide variety of sources and data formats to be integrated together in a common scheme of geographical referencing, thus providing up-to-date information (Coulson and Bromley, 1990). GIS provides planners and decision makers with new tools to implement their work more efficiently (Yaakup et al., 2005a).

The Malaysian development planning system was refined in line with the amendment of the Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172) in year 2001. The amended Act plays a major role in the reform of the development planning system in the sense that it insists the incorporation of the GIS into the development plan preparation process at all planning hierarchy, be it the macro or micro level. As such, GIS technology has long been applied in planning activities, which essentially include plans formulation as well as development control (Johar et al., 2003). The concern of adopting GIS in the development planning process, especially in the preparation of development plans, had encouraged many local/planning authorities to embark on small scale, multi-faceted GIS applications to suit their functions and work procedures (Yaakup et al., 2006).

Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172) (amended in 2001) requires the formulation of plans at various spatial and administrative levels to ensure effective planning. The various plans include:

  • The National Physical Plan (RFN), which outlines the strategic policies for the purpose of determining the general direction and trend of the nation physical development.
  • The Regional Plan, which establishes policies to guide and coordinate development for a region especially in the provision of infrastructure and facilities within the region.
  • The State Structure Plan (RSN), which sets out the policies and proposals for the development and use of the land in a state.
  • The District Local Plan (RTD), which translates the state policies at local level.
The strategic policies which set out the national physical trend of development will be translated at the State Structure Plan. The control of development at the local level is tied to the District Local Plan which is the detailed land use plan that incorporates the national as well as the state development policy. For implementation of the long-term plans and in order to achieve the goals and objectives under the long-term perspective, it is necessary to mobilize all sectors in a systematic manner so as to sustain high rate of economic growth and social progress. As for monitoring purpose, the need for vertical integration of the developed and maintained datasets at the federal, state and local levels should be given due consideration. Effective methods of creating, obtaining and distributing information for the purpose of mid-term reviews, which determined policy and implementation issues for further attention during the remaining plan period are imperative.

GIS FOR MONITORING THE STATE DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF NEGERI SEMBILAN
The State Goverment of Negeri Sembilan had taken an early initiative toward the implementation of ICT in its administrative management through the preparation of Negeri Sembilan ICT Strategic Plan in 2003. Among others, the plan identified the operational supports in term of information systems to be implemented by the state government base on priorities for facilitating implementation of projects (MAMPU, 2003).

The State of Negeri Sembilan (665,374.77 hectares) forms the southern part of the greater KL conurbation identified in the National Physical Plan as the main growth engine of the Malaysian economy. It is made up of 7 Districts with 8 Local Authorities namely Majlis Perbandaran Seremban (MPS), Majlis Perbandaran Nilai (MPN), Majlis Perbandaran Port Dickson (MPPD), Majlis Daerah Kuala Pilah (MDKP), Majlis Daerah Tampin (MDT), Majlis Daerah Jelebu (MDJ), Majlis Daerah Rembau (MDR) and Majlis Daerah Jempol (MDJ). Realising the need for a more dynamic development planning management system at the state level, the State Government of Negeri Sembilan decided to develop its own GIS-based planning support system to monitor the implementation of its development plans over time. Integration and coordination of data developed to bridge the gap between state policies and local circumstances is crucial for planning at state level. This would certainly need a common base of information and data which can help coordinate planning and development programmes at the local authorities level (Yaakup et al., 2006).


Figure 1: GIS9 Development Approach


The use of GIS as the major component of a planning support system is crucial as spatial information concerning planning and development needs to be organized and updated frequently. The development of components of GIS for Negeri Sembilan (GIS9) which comprise the database and system integration essentially took into consideration the different functions and roles of the stakeholders involved, namely JPBDNS and other technical departments (Figure 1). As each department or agency applies rather different administrative and management procedures, GIS9 approach for planning at the state level took into account the needs and functions of JPBDNS as well as other technical departments concerned with planning, implementation, maintenance and management of development programmes in Negeri Sembilan. This is to ensure that the developed data can be shared in attempt to strengthen the development planning management system at the state level. Development of GIS9 was approached in three phases to ensure the success of its implementation and future sustainability especially in the aspects of hardware, software and human resources.

GIS9 Database Structure
The development of GIS9 database involved the routine process of data collection, manipulation, standardization, updating and storing. Based on assessment of the requirement of various stakeholders, the database was designed base on the geodatabase model approach. The database was developed using data from various sources which is channeled through JPBDNS with the support of the other technical departments. The base for GIS9 data development is the lot cadastral map from Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM), which was further enhanced based on to the layout plans provided by JPBDNS. Other data providers include the local authorities which supplied data concerning the local plans and planning applications, and various technical departments. Data from multiple sources was standardized based on the GIS9 database format and structure. GIS9 database structure was designed to conform to JPBDís metadata as well as MyGDI data standard (MS1760).


Figure 2: Basic components of GIS9 Database


The GIS9 base map was then adapted to include other elements of data. Altogether, there are two sets of database. A total of 12 datasets and 64 feature classes were built for the macro database in GIS9. The database contains generalised data sufficient for state level planning. While the micro database which accommodates detailed data consists 8 datasets and 20 feature classes for each district. GIS9 accommodates geospatial data that allows for presentation of information according to locations and attributes for the whole state of Negeri Sembilan.

Development Plans Monitoring System
The development plans monitoring system for Negeri Sembilan was developed base on the crucial need for assessment of the progress and effectiveness, as well as, review of development programs and policies. The monitoring framework had considered the issues of coordination, institutional responsibilities and linkages, indicators and timeframe to establish mechanism for measuring performance against targets.

The module for development plans monitoring in GIS9 supports the State Town and Country Planning Department in controlling and monitoring development projects. The accomplishment of development targets is evaluated in terms of specific indicators and a particular time frame. The implementation is strongly supported by the GIS9 database which provides the planning information needed through continuous data gathering, updating and, storage.

  • The State Structure Plan Monitoring Module (SPRSN)


  • SPRSN provides means for assessing the accomplishment of the state structure plan (Figure 3). It translates gazetted structure plan policies into achievement and compliance units. The State Structure Plan (RSN) involves the general policies, subject policies and specific strategies. The policies can be translated into qualitative and quantitative form of measurement.


    Figure 3: Checking on development compliance to RSN


    The accomplishment of RSN is measured through the assessment of changes in development scenarios based on evaluation of the outlined strategies through comparison with the key diagram.

  • The Local District Plan Monitoring Module (SPRTD)


  • SPRTD emphasizes on physical planning involving spatial data, location and land use activities of proposed development. It will be possible to check whether land use development in the district complies with the zoning strategies in the district and local plans (RTD) by comparing current land use development with that proposed in the district and local plans. Development projects implementation progress at the district level can be constantly monitored and development control can be carried out more systematically.

Data Sharing Framework and Data Accessibility
GIS9 was developed primarily for executing the functions of the Department of Town and Country Planning of Negeri Sembilan (JPBDNS) but was meant be extended to support the functions and requirements of all the state technical departments. These include the Land and Mining Department, Agriculture Department, Health Department, Department of Mineral and Geoscience, Police Department, Fire Department, Public Works Department, Waterworks Department, Drainage and Irrigation Department, Forestry Department and Department of Environment.

For the time being, GIS9 data is made available to all the state technical departments located within the same building (Wisma Negeri) through the local area network (LAN). The data sharing framework in GIS9 provides a more efficient, more effective, and less expensive method of sharing and coordinating information between stakeholders.

GIS9 provides two alternatives for access of its data i.e through the customised user interface and the web.

  1. System Customisation and User Interface


  2. Planning analysis is imperative to ensure that development is well-controlled and comply with the policies and guidelines, both at the state and local level. The application for analysis was developed to facilitate JPBDNS in organising data for analysis and retrieving analysis results when needed, for the purpose of monitoring development, preparation of development plans as well as development control. The comprehensive database constructed has made it easier for modeling and analysis based on predetermined criteria which is required in the formulation and review of development plans, such as identifying Ďpotential areas for developmentí.

    The GIS9 customised system and user interface was developed to ease and make data accessible to all level of users in JPBDNS. It serves as an executive information system for data display and organisation for analyses purposes. GIS9 interface is equipped with several security features to prevent unnecessary exploitation and corruption of data.

  3. GIS9 On-line


  4. Access of information through the web is less time consuming and reduces the need for manpower, apart from enables smooth management and administration flow across government agencies. The GIS9 web-based application was designed to enable dissemination of information both via intranet and internet.


    Figure 4: Publicís Interactive Maps Application


    Generally, the modules developed include the main page, articles, stakeholders, login, activities and publicís interactive maps. The main page provides brief information on GIS9 apart from access to the GIS9 database and applications for stakeholders and the public. GIS functions such as zoom in, zoom out, pan, full extent and identify were provided to assist user to retrieve the required information. The web application was developed and updated in stages based on the updating of information in the database. For the time being, the application is attached to the JPBDNS Ďserverí and made accessible to all departments within the building of Wisma Negeri.
Institutional Arrangement and Human Resources
For smooth and effective implementation of GIS9, institutional arrangement is essential for directing implementation and monitoring proper and timely execution of the plans. To facilitate co-ordination of development effort at state and district levels, respective development committees at various levels were proposed.

Apart from system development and maintenance, preparation of the human resources is also crucial. Programmes were outlined for users to acquire the appropriate knowledge and skills. These include series of workshops and trainings to ensure smooth technology transfer to users apart from receive feedbacks to further enhance the components wherever appropriate for effective system implementation. The training modules prepared also serve as a supporting factor to GIS9 capacity building which cover various aspects including competency, infrastructure, procedures and resources essential for overall implementation.

DISCUSSION
The distinctive feature of GIS9 that was developed for the purpose of monitoring the implementation of the state development plans is that it is capable of operating on two distinct levels of planning Ė the state and district level. The database was constructed through collaboration and data sharing effort from various government departments and agencies. GIS9 also provides updating facilities and interactive data display. In addition, the monitoring system developed to cater for both the state and district levels make it possible to evaluate the success of plan implementation. The development of Geographical Information System for Negeri Sembilan (GIS9) is apparently a significant contribution to the planning field and conventional planning practice especially in the aspects of development management and implementation as the prepared data can be utilised for development programmes studies/reviews both at the state and local levels.

On the other hand, the implementation of GIS9 helps reduces the cost of RSN/RTD studies and preparation due to data availability. It was developed as a planning support system to consider alternative spatial development strategies as well as visualise development potentials. It enables smooth process of development management and implementation due to the data-sharing framework adopted. It can be used by various departments/agencies for the purpose of data updating and enhancement due to common data structure/format.

However, management and maintenance are the key activities in the implementation of GIS9. Among the important aspects of management and maintenance of GIS9 include the preparation of hardware and software for handling large pools of accumulating data as well as system configuration and network capabilities for supporting data sharing procedures between technical departments and data quality and security control. Although at this stage GIS9 was considered successful in its implementation, several issues need to be addressed. These include the difficulty in translating all the userís requirement and integrating the data sets from various agencies. Data from multiple agencies consist of different levels of accuracy and needs to be systematically organised so that the information can be shared with other related agencies. The aspect of data standardization across departments should be given due attention including in terms of data format, database structure, as well as the guidelines applied.

All in all, acquiring and updating of data tends to be the biggest challenge in the implementation of GIS9 as it influences the accuracy of data. Data availability would very much depend on the cooperation from all stakeholders involved either at the state or local level. In addition, the understanding and commitment from all staffs involved in the use of GIS data in all technical departments would very much help speed up the process of acquiring and updating of GIS9 data.

CONCLUSION
Monitoring is a continuous process that involves data collecting and analysis and subsequently comparing planís implementation expected results. The findings from analysis of monitoring and evaluation form the basis for establishing key goals and targets, adjusting strategies and making them effective and efficient.

With its powerful capacity for spatial data management, analysis, and visualization by using GIS as its core, GIS9 provides new tools for more efficient and effective planning and monitoring, especially with support of the interactive and user-friendly interface developed to ease the use of the sophisticated system without the need for advanced technical skills. The implementation of GIS9 has contributed to raising recognition of the importance of vertical integration of the developed and maintained datasets at regional and local levels. The adopted data sharing framework serves as a strong basis for extension of GIS development as well as integration and coordination in all state and local agencies involved in ensuring the success of the implementation of the state development plan.

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Department of Town and Country Planning of Negeri Sembilan, and State Government of Negeri Sembilan for the permission to use the materials presented in this paper.

References
  • Coulson, M. and Bromley, R. (1990) The Assessment of the Users Needs for Corporate GIS: The example of Swansea Council. Proceedings of the European Conference on Geographic Information Systems, Amsterdam, EGIS Foundation, Utrecht, pp. 209-217.
  • Johar F., Yaakup A., Abu Bakar S.Z. and Sulaiman S., (2003) GIS for development planning in Malaysia. Proceedings 8th Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management (CUPUM 2003), Sendai, Japan, 27-29, May 2003
  • MAMPU (2003) Negeri Sembilan ICT Strategic Plan Final Report, Malaysian Administration Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU), Prime Minister Department.
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