GIS Based Maintenance Management System (GMMS) For Major Roads Of Delhi
Road Development Planning and Management
Central Road Research Institute
DR. P.K. Kanchan
Road Development Planning and Management
Central Road Research Institute
Dr. P.K. Nanda
Central Road Research Institute,
During the past four decades, Delhi has seen many faceted developments in the form of increased land use of urban and rural areas, rapid growth of population and increasing number of motorised and non-motorised vehicles, with steep rise in industrial, commercial, and residential activities. This has put the city’s road network into a complex situation. Congestion, safety, lack of way side amenities, poor riding quality etc. are the various problems related to road network. Despite best efforts of concerned authorities aimed at improving the situation on the position contains to be below desired standards. The major road network of Delhi however could be maintained and managed at a very high level of serviceability using modern techniques of maintenance keeping in view the above, a major study has been sponsord by the Government of NCT Delhi to evaluate the network of about 750 km of roads. The aim of the project is to evaluate the existing condition of the roads and to suggest needed improvement measures for the roads so that cost-effective modern technologies can be used to provide higher level of serviceability by applying regular and timely maintenance.
One of the major constraints in preparing the road network improvement strategy is the large volume of data needed for it. And, even if the data becomes available, the problem remains how to access and manage it. Considering the complications in developing, updating and processing road related information there is need to adopt new concepts of information technology for design and development of road network If this data is systematically documented by developing information system for roads, it will be highly useful for agencies manageing these assets. Adoptation of Goegraphic Information Systems (GISs) into this area, predictabely, can help to tackle many of these limitations. This is possible because of the realistic representation of real-world entities, the organised data structure and the powerful analysis and presentation capabilities of GIS.
The paper presents the results of the above project, methodolgy for identification of representative segments of road network to asess maintenance and rehibilitation alternatives. GIS based Maintenance Management System(GMMS) has thereby been developed for the major roads of Delhi. This will enable transparent database available for the management of road activities. Application of GIS in particular has relevance to road network due to the spatially distributed nature of road related data. Thus, GIS technology provides coreframework for an integrated information system on road and road transportation.
Delhi with an area of 1550 sq. km. has about 25000 km. road length of different categories under different agencies. The road network in Delhi is being developed and maintained by Public Works Department (PWD), Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC), Delhi Cantonment Board and Delhi Development Authority(DDA). A major study was commissioned by the Government of NCT Delhi to evaluate the existing condition of roads and siggesst the needed improvements. In this process, a large volume of data is collected. If this data is systematically documented by developing a road information system. It will be higly useful for manageing these assets. A need was increasingly felt to have a more scientific and systematic approach for archeval of maps and retrieval of statistical information. To full fill the above objectives it is felt that Geogrphic Information Sytem (GIS) is best tool for collection, maintenance, analysis and display of geographically referenced data. The paper presents the GIS based Maintenance Management System (GMMS) for major roads of Delhi, which will be the efficient database for management of road and road transport. These database also useful for the various agencies involved in road and road transport development activities. The developed database can be further supplemented with new information as and when it is available. So, the database keeps on updating, which is otherwise not possible to complete in one go. Road sector requires knowledge on planning, design, construction, and management of various categories of roads. The information generated at various stages of planning and implementation will be highly useful for the road asset management during its life period.
The main objective of the study is to develop a GIS based Maintenance Management System for Major roads of Delhi The scope of the work included the following.
- To develop digital map for entire road network and identify roads under study.
- Evaluation of existing road network making homogeneous sections based on random sampling.
- To develop a database for study roads of Delhi using GIS.
- To develop thematic maps of road condition and year wise maintenance strategies of the network.
The overall approach adopted for the project for improvement of the network is based on an extensive evaluation of road network through filed and laboratory studies. The first stage road network evaluation is based on a visual assessment of pavement condition and riding quality measurements. Based on these surveys the other data available from already conducted studies, the structural evaluation is carried out on representative segments of road network. Traffic and axle load surveys have been carried out on selected sections as per the requirement of additional data. Data thus generated have been used to suggest maintenance strategies for the road network. The entire GIS based Maintenance Managements System (GMMS) was framed into two major blocks of a GIS enabled system: the Spatial and the Non-Spatial data. The results are displayed graphically highlighting the pavement condition, roughness, traffic, axle loading scenarios and year wise maintenance and rehabilitation strategies for the study roads. The entire process of project and development of GMMS has been given in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Flow Chart for Development of Maintenance Management System (GMMS)
Description of Delhi Road Network
The total road length comprising of PWD roads and MCD roads in NCT Delhi is over 750 km with 3700 lane km. These roads are scattered all over Delhi in an area of about 1500 sq. km. The PWD roads, as indicated by the agency, fall under four different zones, viz., Zone 1, Zone2, Zone 3, and Zone 4. The road MCD road network is being very vast, only those roads which are having a right of way (ROW) 35 m and above and are in length more than 2 kms are considered. The High Priority Corridors (HPC) for bus and electric trolley schemes is alone included in the study. A summery of study road lengths under different agencies is given in Table 1.
Table 1. Summery of Study Road Lengths under Different Agencies
* High priority corridors for bus and electric trolley schemes
Development of GIS based Maintenance Management System (GMMS)
The digital map is created in four layers representing the road network of Delhi – Arterial roads, Sub-Arterial roads, Collector Streets, and Local Streets. The entire database was prepared using the TransCAD GIS software. The study roads are identified and kilometer wise coding has been done for attachment of the non-spatial data to the relevant layers in GIS environment. The desired attribute road database was planned and structured according to the requirement of developing improvement strategies. The details of the data collected from filed are explained in the next sections. Figure 2 shows the road network under study.
Figure 2 Delhi Road Network Under Study
The following road related parameters data were collected and computerized to evaluate the existing condition of the roads and finding the year wise maintenance and rehabilitation strategies for the roads given in Table 1. Homogeneous sections are obtained based on condition rating, which is calculated using roughness and visual distress. The analysed information so obtained has been attached to the coded maps in GIS environment using TransCAD software to proved clear understanding of road conditions. Brief accounts of the studies along with the salient finding are given in the following sections.
- Pavement condition assessment (visual)
- Roughness measurements for complete road network
- Structural evaluation by Benkelman Beam Deflection measurements
- Riding quality measurements
- Traffic volume studies
- Axle load surveys
- Test pit observations
The traffic volume surveys have been conducted for 24 hours at fifteen locations strategically selected for the study. Already available traffic data taken from report of “Urban Road Traffic and Air Pollution” (Study sponsored by Auto Fuel Policy Committee-2002) and some other studies have also been attached. With this, the traffic volume counts data at sixty locations has been taken for the analysis purpose. Figure 3 shows the locations of traffic surveys on Delhi roads. The estimated traffic flow of the each link is graphically presented in Figure 4.
Figure 3 Locations of Traffic, BBD, Test Pit and Axle loading Surveys in Delhi
Figure 4 Traffic Flow Diagram of Delhi Road Network
Identification of Representative Segments of Road Network
The road network under study being quite large, the detailed evaluation of the complete network within the period available for the study was not feasible. Therefore, representative segments of the network were identified taking care to cover reasonably well the conditions of the entire road links involved in the study. The representative segments, identified based on the criteria decided, was required for the actual data collection of the needed parameters to build-up the database on pavements structural adequacy and its composition. The pavement condition assessment was carried out on all the roads and condition based ratings were obtained. Similarly a rating was also given to each segment based on roughness measured. Both these ratings were then considered as a product to indicate the combined condition of the road stretch.
The pavement condition assessment survey was carried out for all the study roads. The condition data were attached to road network map of Delhi, prepared in GIS environment, for identification of reprehensive segments, as it simplifies the procedure for data management with its features for capturing, analyzing and spatial representation. A number of sections, from each category of road, covering different conditions, were identified for detailed evaluation. Figure 5 shows the pavement condition, roughness, traffic, and axle loading scenario on Zone-1 roads.
Structural Evaluation by Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) Measurements
To assess the structural condition of pavement, Benkelman Beam has been used to measure the deflections on the representative sections of the study roads. The deflections data were measured at eleven points in each kilometer on both sides of carriageway. The location map of deflection measurements is given in Figure 3.
Figure 5 Pavement Condition, Roughness, Traffic and Axle Loading Scenario on PWD Roads (Zone-1)
Axle Load and Test Pit Observations
To assess the actual damage to the roads by traffic loading, especially heavy commercial vehicles, axle load surveys were conducted. This data is required to work out the thickness of additional structural layers that will be required for network improvement programme. Depending upon the combined rating of roads, the locations for test pits were identified on study roads to cover different range of road conditions, varying from very good to very poor. A total thirty three test pits were dug on different roads. The axle load and test pit survey locations are given in Figure 3.
Yearly Maintenance and Rehabilitation Costs of the Network Investigated
For the purpose of evaluation of roads and suggesting the improvement measures, the Delhi road network is considered in two categories, viz., major roads, and non-major roads. The road sections with traffic having 450 or more trucks per day fall in the major road category whereas all other roads fall in the non-major roads category. The recommendations for maintenance and rehabilitation of road network over a period of 10 years, are framed in two stages for flexible overlay and in a single stage for cement concrete overlay. The two stage treatments with their respective year of requirements are schematically indicated on the different maps. Table 2 shows the year wise length of Inner ring road for maintenance and rehabilitation and these details are graphically presented in Figure 6.
Table 2 Year Wise Length of Inner Ring Road for Maintenance and Rehabilitation
- The GIS based Maintennce Management System(GMMS) can provide a flexible tool for policy makers and also to provide clear graphical display of results as well as coordination between related activities.
- The developed database can be further supplemented with new information as and when it is available. So, the database keeps on updating, which is not possible to compile in one go.
- The database can also useful for preparation and printing of thematic of any desired scale is possible in the set up.
- If the system developed properly real time/up to date road maintenance information can be ubtained from it.
- The comprehensive spatial database of roads wherein an exhaustive list of attributes is attached to each kilimetre segments of the road makes the system a significant asset management tool.
Figure 6. Year Wise Maintenance and Rehabilitation for Inner Ring Road
The authors wish to thank sincerely all the study team of the project “Evaluation of Delhi roads for Maintenance and Rehabilitation Strategies”, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, India whose involvement has been instrumental in the successful implementation of this massive project. The authors are thankful Shri B. Srinivas Rao and others scientists for their direct and indirect contribution.
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